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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States

Butterfield, C. W.
III.--Pre-territorial annals of Wisconsin,   pp. 29-41 PDF (6.5 MB)

Page 38

western portion 'of the State; but it was not until the year 1825, and the
two following years, that
very general attention was attracted to them, which eventuated in the settlement
of different
places in that region, by Americans, who came to dig for lead ore. This rapid
increase of
settlers awakened the jealousy of the Winnebago Indians, at what they de-emed
an unauthorized
intrusion upon their lands, which, with other causes operating unfavorably
upon their minds,
aroused them in June, 1827, to open acts of hostility. Murders became frequent.
Finally, the
militia of Prairie du Chien were called out. On the twenty-ninth of August,
Henry Atkinson, of the United States army, with a strong force of regulars,
ascended the Wis-
consin river to put an end to any further spread of Winnebago disturbances.
He was joined on
the first of September, by one hundred and thirty Galena volunteers, mounted,
and under com-
mand of General' lenry Dodge. The Winnebagoes were awed into submission.
Thus ended
the "Winnebago War." It was followed by the erection at the portage
of Fort Winnebago, by
the United States.
     After the restoration of tranquillity, the United States proceeded by
treaty with the Indians,
 to secure the right to occupy the lead regions. This was in 1828. The next
year, the General
 Government purchased of the Winnebagoes, Southwestern Wisconsin, which put
an end to all
 trouble on account of mining operations. On the ninth of October, 1829,
a county was formed,
 by the legislative council of the Territory of Michigan, comprising all
that part of Crawford
 county lying south of the Wisconsin river. This new county was called Iowa.
The county
 seat was temporarily established at Mineral Point. Following this was a
treaty in 1831, with the
 Menomonees, for all their lands east of Green bay, Winnebago lake, and the
Fox and Milwaukee
     There was now a crisis at hand. The most prominent event to be recorded
in the pre-Ter-
ritorial annals of Wisconsin is known as the Black Hawk War. This conflict
of arms between
the Sacs and Foxes and the United States arose from a controversy in regard
to lands. By a
treaty made at Fort Harmar, just across the River Muskingum from Marietta,
Ohio, in January,
1789, the Pottawattamie and Sac tribes of Indians, among others, were received
into the friend-
ship of the General Government, and a league of peace and unity established
between the con-
tracting parties  On the third of November, 1804, a treaty at St. Louis stipulated
that the
united Sac and Fox tribes should be received into the friendship of the United
States, and also
be placed under their protection. These tribes also agreed to consider themselves
under the pro-
tection of the General Government and of no other power whatsoever. At this
treaty lands were
ceded which were a boundary' beginning at a point on the
Missouri river
opposite the mouth of the Gasconade, and running thence in a direct course
so as to strike the
River Jefferson at the distance of thirty miles from its mouth, and down
that stream to the Missis-
sippi. It then ran up the latter river to the mouth of the Wisconsin, and
up that stream to a
point thirty-six miles in a direct line from its mouth; thence by a straight
course to a point
where the Fox river of the Illinois leaves the small lake then called Sakaegan,
and from that
point down the Fox to the Illinois, and down the latter to the Mississippi.
The consideration for
this cession was the payment of goods to the value of two thousand two hundred
and thirty-four
dollars and fifty cents, and a yearly annuity of one thousand dollars-six
hundred to be paid to
the Sacs and four hundred to the Foxes-to be liquidated in goods valued at
first cost. After-
ward, Fort Madison was erected just above the Des Moines rapids in the Mississippi,
on the ter-
ritory ceded at the last mentioned treaty. Then followed the war with Great
Britain, and the
Sacs and Foxes agreed to take no part therein. However, a portion afterward
joined the
English against the Americans along with other Western tribes. At the restoration
of peace the
Sacs and Foxes held treaties with the United States. There was a renewal
of the treaty of 1804.

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