The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
Butterfield, C. W.
III.--Pre-territorial annals of Wisconsin, pp. 29-41 PDF (6.5 MB)
PRE-TERRI TO1IAL ANNALS OF WISCON[IN. 33 James Gorrell, in command, with one sergeant, one corporal and fifteen privates. There also remained at the post a French interpreter and two English traders. The name of the fortifica- tion was changed to Fort Edward Augustus. This post was abandoned by the commandant on the twenty-first of June, 1763, on account of the breaking out of Pontiac's War and the capture of the fort at Mackinaw by the savages. The cause of this war was this: The Indian tribes saw the danger which the downfall of the French interests in Canada was sure to bring to them. They banded together under Pontiac to avert their ruin. The struggle was short but fierce- full of",, scenes of tragic interest, with marvels of suffering and vicissitude, of heroism and endur- ance;" but the white man conquered. The moving incidents in this bloody drama were enacted to the eastward of what is now Wisconsin, coming no nearer than Mackinaw, which, as just mentioned, the savages captured; but it resulted in the evacuation of its territory by British troops, who never after took possession of it, though they continued until 1796 a nominal military rule over it, after Mackinaw was again occupied by them. An early French Canadian trading station at the head of Green bay assumed finally the 'form of a permanent settlement -the first one in Wisconsin. To claim, however that any French Canadian is entitled to the honor of being the first permanent white settler is assuming for him more than the facts seem to warrant. The title of " The Father and Founder of Wis- consin'" belongs to no man. After Pontiac's War, one of the noted events in this region was the journey of Jonathan Carver, who, in 1766, passed up Fox river to the portage, and descended the Wisconsin to the Mississippi. He noticed the tumbling-down post at what is now Green Bay, Brown county. He saw a few families living in the fort, and some French settlers, who cultivated the land opposite, and appeared to live very comfortably. That was the whole extent of improvements in whatý is now Wisconsin. The organization of the Northwest Fur Company; the passage of an act by the British Parliament by which the whole Northwest was included in the Province of Quebec; the joining of the Indians in this region with the British, against the Americans, in the War of the Revolution; the exploration of the lead region of the Upper Mississippi by Julian Dlbuque; the passage of the'ordinance of 1787; the first settlement of the territory northwest of the River Ohio; and the Indian war which followed, are all incidents, during British occu- pation, of more or less interest for the student of Wisconsin history. He will find that, by the treaty of 1783 and of 1795, with Great Britain, all the inhabitants residing in this region were to be protected by the United States in the full and peaceable possession of their property, with'the right to remain in, or to withdraw from it, with their effects, within one year. All who did not leave were to be deemed American citizens, allowed to enjoy all the privileges of citizenship, and to be under the protection of the General Government.. He will also find that less than two years, was the whole time of actual military occupation of what is now Wisconsin by British soldiers, and that English domination, which should have ended at the close of the Revoln- tion, was arbitrarily continued until the Summer of 1796, when the western posts, none of which were upon territory circumscribed by Lakes Michigan and Superior and the Mississippi river, were delivered into the keeping of the United States. Thus the supremacy of Great Britain over the Northwest was, after an actual continuance of thirty-five years, at an end. Although the General Government did not get possession of the region northwest of the Ohio, throughout its full extent, for thirteen years subsequent to its acquirement by the treaty of peace of 1783 with Great Britain, nevertheless, steps were taken, very soon, to obtain concessions from such of the colonies as had declared an ownership in any portion of it. None of the claimants, seemingly, had better rights than Virginia, who, by virtue of conquests, largely her own, of the Illinois settlements and posts, extended her jurisdiction over that country, erecting into a county 33
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