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Cartwright, Carol Lohry; Shaffer, Scott; Waller, Randal / City on the Rock River : chapters in Janesville's history
(1998)

2. Immigration and settlement,   pp. 43-51


Page 46

English and Scottish Immigration
A considerable number of English immigrants settled in Janesville between 1835 and 1860.
During the 1840s and 1850s, they constituted the second largest group of foreign-born settlers in
the community, surpassed only by the Irish. Many of these English immigrants came from the
industrial, artisan, and labor classes; a smaller number came from rural, agricultural areas of
England. (Manuscript Censuses for 1850 and 1860; Jeffris 1935:11)
.7'..  I  .   -:
-, ..... -.... ...
RES.OF MRS.M.M.JACKMAN
The Timothy Jackman House at 55 S. Atwood Avenue,
built in 1858, is among the city's finest pre-Civil
War residences. Jackman, a native of New York, was the
founder of the Rock County National Bank. Illustration 1873.
English immigrants had relatively few cultural differences from the American-born settlers in
Janesville, so they did not establish many distinctive ethnic institutions. Rather, they
probably mixed with the Americans in both the social and business worlds. Records indicate
that these immigrants were closely associated with the local Episcopal churches in the city,
and they organized one known benevolent society, the St. George Society, in the early 1870s.
The objectives of this society were to assist English immigrants and to promote social
interaction among citizens of English ancestry. It is not known where this society met, but it was
likely at one of the churches that English immigrants attended. (Butterfield 1879"558; Brown
1908:296-297; City Directories)
Many Scottish immigrants came to Rock County between 1835 and 1860, but few settled in
Janesville. The census records for 1850, 1860, and 1870 show less than 50 people who claimed to
be Scottish immigrants residing in the city. At the turn of the twentieth century, there were
about 100 Scottish immigrants in Janesville; this constituted less than one percent of
Janesville's total population. (Manuscript Censuses for 1850, 1860, and 1870; City Directories)
No historic resources have been identified that relate to English and Scottish settlement in
Janesville, other than their membership in certain churches. A thorough survey of potential
Immigration and Settlement
46


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