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Cartwright, Carol Lohry; Shaffer, Scott; Waller, Randal / City on the Rock River : chapters in Janesville's history
(1998)

1. Prehistoric and historic Native American occupation,   pp. 1-42


Page 15

French isolated the Fox by enticing their allies, one by one, to abandon hostilities. The Fox
were almost entirely eliminated in 1731 by a combined French and allied Indian force. Those
who survived fled to the Sauk.
King George's War (1744-1748) and the French and Indian War (1756-1763) led to additional
changes in the Wisconsin area's Indian settlement pattern. Some groups moved to the Green
Bay area to be closer to trading posts, while others, including the Potawatomi, moved into a
relatively unused area along the western shore of Lake Michigan. As British traders moved
into the Ohio Valley and the Illinois country, American Indian groups in the southern
Wisconsin area turned their attention to the new trading center of St. Louis. At this time the
Rock River most likely saw an increase in fur-bearing canoe traffic. At the beginning of the
American Revolution, the American Indians between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River
were divided into pro-British, pro-American, and indifferent or undecided factions. While a
few Potawatomi from the Milwaukee area and the northern-based Winnebago joined the
British, the Rock River group of Winnebago sided with the Americans. As with past conflicts,
the American Revolution caused changes in the settlement patterns of the western Great Lakes
tribal groups. By 1800, the Rock River Winnebago were concentrated on Lake Koshkonong, on
A portion of the Map of the Territories of Michigan and Ouisconsin, 1836.
the Sugar River and Yahara River tributaries of the Rock River, and at various places where
small streams converged with the Rock. An 1829 map of the "United States Lead Mines on the
Upper Mississippi River" shows a Winnebago village at the mouth of Turtle Creek where the
City of Beloit now stands. A second Winnebago village is located at the mouth of the Yahara,
in northern Rock County, on an 1836 "Map of the Territories of Michigan and Ouisconsin." In his
History of Rock County, Butterfield (1879) mentions several Winnebago villages in or near
Rock County-
Two of their villages were very favorably situated: one at the extreme northern
Prehistoric and Historic Native American Occupation
15


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