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Wisconsin bankers' farm bulletin

Jones, E. R.
Wisconsin bankers' farm bulletin. Bulletin no. 23: making dry the wet places PDF (903.6 KB)

   How Deep Should Tile Be Laid? Three feet in clay; four feet in
muck or peat; at least one foot below the top of a sandy subsoil; but
just at the top of a layer of hardpan, even though it be only two feet
below the surface. Thus covered, they may freeze with safety, if
they are empty when they freeze. Hence, keep the outlet open. Soft
tile crumble at the outlet due to the sudden daily freezing and thaw-
ing. Tile laid only two feet deep in a wet peat heave in two years
so that the plow strikes them in some places.
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, ;',.  ..  ,~~~~!t
 In big valleys open outlet ditches are necessary, but wherever a ditch less
than six
       feet deep and 15 feet wide at the top will take the flow; an 18-inch
                    tile with a surface run is better.
   How Large Should Tile Be?   Nothing less than 4-inch tile, inside
diameter, should be used for laterals. The size of the main depends     
on the fall, and the size and springiness of the area.
   How Much Fall Do Tile Need?    Two inches in 100 feet is good.
The larger the tile the less fall they require. Many lines of 12-inch
tile are level for 1,000 feet, but they must have a free outlet.
   Can a Carpenter's Level Be Used for Surveying? Such a level
will tell you whether you have a poor fall or a good one. Unless
you have a fall of two feet in 80 rods in the surface of the ground
to an outlet three feet deep or more, you should have an engineer
set the grade stakes with a surveyor's instrument.
   How Can You Get the Tile Laid?   Either put a competent fore-
man who has some knowledge of engineering, in charge of a crew of
ordinary laborers, or else let a tiling contractor do the work at so
much a rod, furnishing his own tools.
   Can Dead Furrows Be Used For Drainage? A good dead furrow
for surface drainage with a line of 4-inch tile for under drainage is

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