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Satz, Ronald N. / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume 79, No. 1

End notes,   pp. 199-207 ff. PDF (3.2 MB)


Page 199


End Notes
     1. Chippewa mixed-blood writer William Warren refers to Chippewa lands
in
Wisconsin and Minnesota as "blood earned country" (1849,
20) due
to their
"ancient bloody feud" (1850, 95) with the Sioux. For source
material
on Chippewa-
Sioux relations collected by an amateur historian from the Chippewa Valley,
see
Bartlett (1929, 1-66).
    2. For information on the government trading houses, see Peake (1954);
Plais-
ance (1954); Prucha (1984, 1: 115-34); and Viola (1974, 6-70).
     3. Jefferson followed a similar approach in the South; see Satz (1981,
9-10).
     4. At the Fond du Lac negotiations in 1827, for example, the treaty
commis-
sioners collected British medals and flags and gave Indian leaders and others
they
chose to recognize American flags and medals (Edwards 1826, 460-61, 473-74;
Schoolcraft 1851, 245; Viola 1974, 145; Warren 1885, 393). Interpreter William
Warren reflected on the incident years later as follows:
    At the treaty of Fond du Lac, the United States commissioners recognized
the chiefs
  of the Ojibways, by distributing medals amongst them, the size of which
were in accor-
  dance with their degree of rank. Sufficient care was not taken in this
rather delicate
  operation, to carry out the pure civil polity of the tribe. Too much attention
was paid to
  the recommendation of interested traders who wished their best hunters
to be rewarded
  by being made chiefs. One young man named White Fisher, was endowed with
a medal,
  solely for the strikingly mild and pleasant expression of his face. He
is now a petty sub-
  chief on the Upper Mississippi.
     From this time may be dated the commencement of innovations which have
entirely
  broken up the civil polity of the Ojibways. (Warren 1885, 393-94)
For a history of the use of peace medals in American Indian diplomacy, see
Prucha
(1962a; and 1971).
     5. Lawrence Taliaferro was appointed at Fort Snelling in 1819, and Henry
Rowe Schoolcraft was appointed at Sault Ste. Marie in 1822 (Hill 1974, 162,
166).
As late as 1837 Governor Dodge referred to the Wisconsin Chippewas as follows:
"They live remote from our military posts, and have but little intercourse
with our
citizens, and have had no established agent of the Government to reside with
them
any length of time" (Dodge 1837b, 538).
     6. Grant Foreman (1946) has studied the removal of Indians from Ohio,
Indiana, and Illinois. I have briefly examined the removal of Indians from
the Old
Northwest as part of a larger study of Jacksonian Indian policy (1975) and
have
reviewed the situation in the Old Northwest in more detail as a test case
of Jacksonian
policy (1976). Useful articles on individual Indian tribes and bands from
the Saint
Lawrence lowlands and the Great Lakes riverine regions appear in Trigger
(1978).
199


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