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Haywood, Carl N. (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume 75 (1987)

Rudsam, Lars G.; Trapp, Todd W.
Diel patterns of behavior and habitat utilization of cisco (Coregonus artedii) in two Wisconsin lakes,   pp. 70-78 PDF (3.4 MB)

Page 70

Diel Patterns of Behavior 
and Habitat Utilization of Cisco 
(Coregonus artedii) in Two Wisconsin Lakes 
Lars G. Rudstam and Todd W. Trapp 
Abstract. Diel patterns of behavior and habitat utilization of cisco (Comegonus
antedii) differed between lakes and among age groups. At night, cisco were
dispersed across both lakes, but three different daytime distributions were
observed: cisco were (1) dispersed and distributed across the lake (older
fish in Trout Lake), (2) schooled and distributed across the lake (Pallette
Lake), and (3) schooled and distributed closer to shore (younger fish in
Trout Lake). No die! vertical migration was observed, but the smaller fish
in Trout Lake moved toward the shore during dawn and offshore during dusk.
Stomach analyses indicate that cisco may feed both day and night. Younger
cisco were spatially segregated from older fish in Trout Lake, but there
were only small differences in diet between the two groups. Possible causes
for differences between lakes and between age groups are discussed. 
pelagic fishes in lakes often exhibit did 1979, Hanych et al. 1983, Brabrand
et al. patterns of behavior and habitat 1984), and centmamchids (Baumann
and utilization. Vertical migrations toward the Kitchell 1974). 
surface at night are common in plank- Engel and Magnuson attributed the tivonous
salmonines (Nanver 1970, Eggens lack of vertical migration of cisco in 1978)
and conegonines (Nomthcote and Pallette Lake to the narrow depth interval
Rundberg 1970, Dembinski 1971, Nilsson where temperatures were low and oxygen
1979, Endemlein 1982, Hamnin 1986). levels high enough to support cisco (the
However, Engel and Magnuson (1976) did "cisco layer" of Frey 1955).
not observe any vertical migration of migrations would then be expected in
cisco (Coregonus artedii) in Pallette Lake, larger, deepen lakes with well-oxygenated
Wisconsin, during summer stratification. hypolimnia. In this paper, we present
Instead, they reported a horizontal did results from an investigation of
cisco did migration. The fish moved onshore at behavior in two northern Wisconsin
lakes dawn and offshore at dusk. Horizontal (Trout and Pallette Lakes) during
summer did migrations of comegonines have not stratification, using sonar
and vertical gill been reported elsewhere, but such migma- nets. We address
the following questions: 
tions have been observed for pencids (1) is the horizontal did migration
pattern (Haslen and Bandach 1949, Haslen and reported from Pallette Lake
consistent Villemonte 1953), cypninids (Hall et al. oven a period of time,
(2) can this pattern 
be found in another lake, and (3) does 
Lars G. Rudstarn is a Ph.D. candidate in Marine vertical did migration occur
when the Biology at the University of Stockholm. , , 
- hypolimmon is deep and well oxygenated 
Todd W. Trapp is an undergraduate student at the 
University of Wisconsin-Madison majoring in (Trout Lake, temperatures below
10 C 
zoology, and oxygen levels above 3 mg/l from 12- 

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