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Morgan, Banner Bill (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume XXXVI (1944)

Fassett, Norman C.
Vegetation of the Brule basin, past and present,   pp. 33-56 ff. PDF (10.4 MB)

Page 33

Brute River Survey: Paper No. ~ 
 The Brule River flows northward in eastern Douglas County, Wisconsin, to
Lake Superior (Map 1). It is notable to geologists in that it occupies the
valley carved by the outlet of the Glacial Lake Duluth, which was in the
western end of what is now Lake Superior, during the recession of the Superior
lobe of Substage 4 of Wisconsin glaciation. It has long been notable to sportsmen
as a trout stream; indeed, this study was initiated for the. purpose of determining
whether. there have been changes in the vegetation of the drainage basin
which might be responsible for changes in the environment of the fish. 
 Map 2 was derived from a study of the notes of the government surveyors
who laid out the section lines in the region in 
1852-56. Map 3 was derived largely from the survey in 1932 by the Wisconsin
Land Economic Inventory, somewhat modified by notes of the Wisconsin Geological
Survey in 1925 and by personal observation in 1942-43. Details of the methods
of deriving these maps will be discussed later. 
 The Brule Basin may be conveniently divided into four general areas, (1)
the gorge of the upper Brule, shown by the brown band along the river on
Maps 2 and 3, (2) the sand barrens, shown mainly by the stippled red on both
sides of the upper Brule on Map 2, (3) the valley of Nebagamon Creek, the
largest tributary, entering the Brule in T.47, R.1OW., and (4) the lower
Brule basin, embracing essentially the area in solid pink and solid orange
on the northern third of Map 2. 
THE Boa 
 The upper Brule is remarkable in that it flows northeastward in the ancient
channel of a much larger stream, the outlet of Lake Duluth (which occupied
what is now the west end of Lake Superior) in early post-glacial times, and
flowed southwestward 

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