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Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume XII, Part II (1899)

Lincoln, Azariah Thomas
The electrical conductivity of non-aqueous solutions,   pp. [395]-453 PDF (16.7 MB)


Page [395]


THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF NON-AQUEOUS
                         SOLUTIONS.'
                  AZARIAH THOMAS LINCOLN, PH. D.
                       University of Wisconsin.
                       WITE PLATES {I TO VII.
                       INTRODUCTION.
   Van't Hoff formulated his modern theory of solutions from
 the results of Pfeffer's 2 classic experiments on the osmotic
 pressure of a few substances in aqueous solutions, and from
.the work of de Vries I who pointed out that equimolecular
quantities of dissolved substances produce the same osmotic
pressure. Van't Hoff4 stated that the condition of a substance
in the gaseous state is analogous to the condition in which a
substance exists in dilute solutions wherein the osmotic pres-
sure of the dissolved substance corresponds to the pressure of
the gaseous particles.  It was soon observed, however. that
many substances did not give normal values for the osmotic
pressure, the rise of the boiling, or lowering of the freezing
point; and thus that the laws of gases would not hold for solu-
tions of these substances.
   Arrhenius pointed out that those substances which yield
 solutions in water that conduct electricity are acids, bases,
 and salts (called electrolytes); and that they are the same class
 of compounds as give abnormal values for the osmotic pressure,
 the rise of the boiling point, and the lowering of the freezing
 point in aqueous solutions. In order to explain these anom-
 I A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University
 of Wisconsin, 1899.
 2 Osmotische Untersuchungen, Leipzig, 1877.
 3 Zeit. phys. Chem. 2, 414; 1888.
 4 Zeit. phys. Chem. 1, 481; 1887.
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