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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
(1880)

Hobbins, Joseph
Health of Wisconsin,   pp. 230-249 PDF (8.8 MB)


Page 230


HISTORY OF WISCONSIN.
townships twenty-five and thirty-one, to the west end of Lake Superior, and
from some point on
the line of said road, to be selected by the state, to Bayfield - every alternate
section designated
by odd numbers, for ten sections in width on each side of said road, with
an indemnity extending
twenty miles on each side, was granted, under1certain regulations; another,
for aiding in building
a road from Tomah to the St. Croix river, between townships twenty-five and
thirty-one- every
alternate section by odd numbers, for ten sections in width on each side
of the road; another
for aiding and constructing a railroad from Portage City, Berlin, Doty's
Island, or Fond du Lac,
as the legislature may determine, in a northwestern direction, to Bayfield,
on Lake Superior, and
a grant of every alternate section designated by odd numbers, for ten sections
in width on each
side of said road, was donated.
     The legislature of 1865 failed to agree upon a disposition of the grant.
The succeeding
 legislature conferred the grant partly upon the "Winnebago & Lake
Superior Railroad Company,"
 and partly upon the " Portage & Superior Railroad Company,"
the former April 6, i866, and the
 latter April 9, i866. The two companies were consolidated, under the name
of the "Portage,
 Winnebago & Superior Railroad," by act of the legislature, March
6, 1869, and by act of legis-
 lature approved February 4, 187i, the name was changed to the "Wisconsin
Central Railroad."
                  HEALTH OF WISCONSIN.
                               By JOSEPH HOBBINS, M.D.
     An article on state health, necessarily embracing the etiology, or causes
of disease, involves
the discussion of the geographical position of the state; its area, physical
features; its elevations,
depressions; water supply; drainage; its mean level above the sea; its geology;
climatology;
the nationality of its people; their occupations, habits, food, education;.and,
indeed, of all the
physical, moral and mental influences which affect the public health.
                                   GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION.
     The geographical position of Wisconsin, considered in relation to health,
conveys an imme-
diate and favorable impression, which is at once confirmed by a reference
to the statistical atlas
of the United States. On its north it is bounded by Lake Superior, Minnesota,
and the northern
peninsula of Michigan; on the south by Illinois; on the east by Lake Michigan,
and on the
west by the Mississippi. It lies between 420 30' and 460 55' N. latitude,
and between 87' and
920 50' W. long.; is 285 miles long from north to south, and 255 in breadth
from east to west,
giving it an area of some 53,924 square miles, or 34,51i,36o acres. Its natural
surface divisions,
or proportions, are 16 per cent. of prairie, 50 of timber, 19 of openings,
15 of marsh, mineral
undefined. North of 450 the surface is nearly covered with vast forests of
pine. The proportion
of the state cultivated is nearly one-sixth.
                                    PHYSICAL FEATURES.
     Among these, its lacustrine character is most conspicuous, so much so
that it may not inaptly
be called the state of a thousand lakes, its smaller ones being almost universal
and innumerable.
230


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