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Geo. A. Ogle and Co. / Standard atlas of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin

Digest of the system of civil government,   pp. III-VI PDF (6.2 MB)

Page III

                       WITH A REVIEW OF THE
Duties and Powers of the Principal Officials Connected
       with the Various Branches of National, State,
              County and Township Government.
T HE GOVERNMENT of the United States is one of limited
         and specific powers, strictly outlined and defined by a written
         constitution. The constitution was adopted in 1787, and, with
         the amendments that have since been made, it forms the basis
         of the entire fabric of government under which we live. The
constitution created three distinct branches of government, each of
which is entirely separate and distinct from the others. They are the
executive, legislative and judicial departments. The constitution spe-
cifically vests the executive power in the President, but all members
of the cabinet are usually classed with the executive department; the
legislative power is held by Congress, and the judicial authority is
vested in the Supreme Court and various other courts which Congress
has provided for in pursuance of the provisions of the constitution.
    It has been the aim of these pages to explain each of these different
branches of government, and to briefly review the duties and powers
of the principal officials connected with each department.
    The President and Vice-President are elected by popular vote, but
the vote of each State is separate, so that a candidate may have a large
majority of the aggregate popular vote of the country and yet fail to be
elected. The Presidential election is held on the first Tuesday after the
first Monday in November, when Presidential electors are chosen in and
for the various States, each State having as many electors as it has rep-
resentatives in both branches of Congress. The electors are chosen by
the ballots of the people of their States, and all the electors of a State
constitute an electoral college. The electors meet in each State at the
capital on the first Wednesday in December following a National elec-
tion and vote for President and Vice-President, certificates of which
are forwarded to the President of the Senate, at Washington, who, on
the second Wednesday in February opens the certificates and counts
the votes in the presence of both Houses of Congress and declares the
result; and the final step is the inauguration, which takes place on the
4th of March. The law provides that if neither of the candidates have
a majority then the House of Representatives shall elect a President
from the three candidates receiving the highest electoral vote. In
elections of this kind each State is entitled to only one vote, and two-
thirds of the States form a quorum.
    The President is the highest executive officer of the United States.
He is elected for the term of four years, and receives a salary of $75,000
per annum. He must be thirty-five years old or more, and a native-
born citizen of the United States. The President is charged with a gen-
eral supervision over the faithful execution of laws passed by Congress,
and has supervision over all executive departments of the government.
He appoints a Cabinet of nine officials who become the heads of the
various departments, and these departments are intended to be managed
and conducted as the President directs. The President is Commander-
in-Chief of the Army and Navy. He has power to grant pardons and
reprieves for all offenses against the United States, except in cases of
impeachment; has power, with the advice and consent of the Senate,
to make treaties. He nominates, and with the advise and consent of the
Senate, appoints Ambassadors and other public Ministers and Consuls,
all Judges of the United States courts, and all other executive officers
of the United States, except in such cases where the appointments may
be vested in the various "departments." When the Senate is not
session he can appoint, subject to its action when it reassembles. He
has power, in certain extraordinary occasions, to call together both
Houses of Congress, or either of them, in extra session; and is re-
quired from time to time to communicate with Congress, as to the state
of the Union, and offer such suggestions or recommendations as he may
deem proper. He is empowered to approve or veto all measures adopt-
ed by Congress, but it is provided that any measure may be passed over
his veto by a two-thirds vote of Congress.
   SThe President consults frequently with his Cabinet, and nearly all
important official matters are discussed by that body. In case the office
of President becomes vacant through the death, removal or resignation
of the incumbent, the law provides that the office shall in turn be filled
by the Vice-President, Secretary of State, and other Cabinet Ministers
in regular order.
                       VICE PRESIDENT.
    The Vice-President of the United States is elected for the term of
four years, and receives a salary of $12,000. In case of the death,
removal or resignation of the President, the Vice-President succeeds
him. The chief duty of the Vice-President is to act as the presiding
officer of the Senate. He has no vote in the Senate, except in case of a
tie, or an equal division of the members of that body. The Vice-
President administers the oath of office to the Senators.
                     STATE DEPARTMENT.
    The head of this department is the Secretary of State, who is
appointed by the President as a member of the Cabinet, and receives a
salary of $8,000 per year. The law provides that in case the office of
President becomes vacant, through the death, removal or resignation of
both the President and Vice-President, the Secretary of State assumes
the duties of the Presidency. The Secretary of State may be said to be
the official Secretary of the President, and countersigns all commissions
issued by the President.
    The Secretary of State is the head of the Department of State and
is the chief diplomatic officer of the United States. In his department
and under his supervision is conducted the public business relating to
foreign affairs; to correspondence, commissions or instructions to or
with public Ministers from the United States; or to negotiations with
Ministers from foreign States; or to memorials or other applications
from foreigners, or foreign public Ministers, or citizens of this country
in foreign lands, or complications arising therefrom. The Secretary of
State also has charge of all other business connected with foreign
affairs, extradition matters and diplomatic officers; furnishing passports
to vessels going to foreign countries, etc., and has charge of the Great
Seal of the United States
   oConnected with the Department of State and forming a part of it
in the great work of performing and caring for the duties outlined
are the following bureaus:
     The Diplomatic Bureau, which looks after the affairs pertaining
to foreign governments.
    The Consular Bureau, correspondence with consulates.
    The Bureau of Indexes and Archives, the duties of which are to
oen the official mails, prepare an abstract of the daily correspondence
ope the of.....cialsceieouswork of department.
and an index of it. and superintend miscellaneous aork f  cpatheote
    The Bureau of Accounts, i twhich all of the finances of the de-
partment are looked after, such as the custody and di sursement of
appropriations; also indemnity funds and bonds; also care of the
building and property of the department, etc.
    The Bureau of Rolls and Library, which is .zharged with the
custody of treaties, rolls, public documents, etc.; has care of revolution-
ary archives, of international commissions, superintendence
    The Bureau of Statistics, for the preparation of report
mercial relations.
    The chiefs of these bureaus receive from $2,100 per year
per year. In addition to these there are connected with
Department the offices of translator, at $2,100 per year; ass
retary, $5,000; second assistant secretary, $4,500; third assist
tary, $4,500; solicitor, $4,500; chief clerk, $3,000; clerk to Se
State, $2,500; passport clerk, $1,400. Besides these are tI
comptrollers, auditors, clerks and assistants, which numbe
into the thousands.
                  TREASURY DEPARTMENT.
    This department was organized in 1789. The head of this depart-
ment, known as the Secretary of the Treasury, is appointed by the Pres-
ident, is a member of the Cabinet, and receives a salary of $12,000 per
annum. The Treasury Department is one of the most important
branches of the national government, as it has charge of the financial
affairs of the government, custody of public funds, collection of revenue
and maintenance of public credit. Among the many important duties
devolving upon this department are the following: It attends to the
collection of all internal revenues and duties on imports, and the pre-
vention of frauds in these departments. All claims and demands,
either by the United States or against them, and all the accounts in
which the United States are interested, either as debtors or creditors,
must be settled and adjusted in the Treasury Department. This de-
partment also includes the Bureau of the Mint, in which the govern-
ment coin and moneys are manufactured. The Treasury Department
authorizes the organization of national banks and has supervision over
them; has charge of the coast surveys, the lighthouses, marine hos-
pitals, etc. It has charge of all moneys belonging to the United States;
designates depositories of public moneys, keeps a complete and accurate
system of accounting, showing the receipts and disbursements of the
Treasury, and makes reports at stated intervals showing the condition
of public finances, public expenditures and the public debt.  V
    There are a great many important officials connected with the
Treasury Department, chief among which are the following, viz.:
Private secretary of the head department, at $2,500 per year; three
assistant secretaries, at $5,000 each; chief clerk, $3,000; chief of ap-
pointment division, $3,000; chief of warrants division, $3,500; chief of
public moneys division, $3,000; chief of customs division, $3,000; acting
chief of revenue marine division, $2,500; chief of stationery division,
$2,500; chief of loans and currency division, $3,000; chief of miscella-
neous division, $2,500; supervising special agent, $8 per day; govern-
ment actuary, $1,800; supervising architect, $4,500; steamboat inspector,
$3,500; chief Bureau of Statistics, $3,000; life saving service superin-
tendent, $4,500; assistant, $2,500; commissioner Bureaus of Navigation,
$3,600; superintendent United States coast and geodetic survey, $6,000;
supervising surgeon-general marine hospital service, $4,000; Bureau of
Engraving and Printing, director, $5,000; assistant director, $3,500;
superintendent engraving division, $4,500.
    The foregoing will serve to show many of the lines of work at-
tended to in the Treasury Department, as the names of these offices
explain the branch of work they are charged with attending to. There
are a number of other important offices in the department that should
be mentioned, among them being the following:
    The Solicitor of the Treasury, or chief attorney, who receives
$4,500 per year for attending to the legal matters connected with the
    The Commissioner of Customs, who receives $4,000 per year
and his deputy $2,250, has charge of all accounts of the revenue from
customs and disbursements, and for the building and repairing of
custom houses.
    The Treasurer of the United States receives $6,000 per year,
assistant treasurer $3,600, and superintendent of national banks (Red.
Div.) $3,500. The Treasurer receives and keeps the government funds,
either at headquarters or in the Sub-Treasuries or government depos-
itories, paying it out upon warrants drawn in accordance with the law,
and pays all interest on the national debt.
    The Register of the Treasury is paid a salary of $4,000 per year
and his assistant $2,500. The Register keeps the accounts of public
expenditures and receipts; receives the returns and makes out the
official statements of United States commerce and navigation; receives
from first comptroller and Commissioner of Customs all accounts and
vouchers acted on by them and files the same.
    The Comptroller of the Currency receives $5,000 per year and
his deputy $3,000. This bureau is charged with a general supervision
of the national banks and matters connected with the issuing of paper
    The Director of the Mint receives $4,500 per annum, and is
charged with a general supervision over all the coinage of the govern-
    The Comptroller of the Treasury receives $5,500 per year and
his assistant $4,500. This bureau has charge of the auditing system of
the Treasury. With the exception of the postal revenue accounts, the
comptroller prescribes the forms of keeping and rendering all public
    Auditors. There are six auditors connected with the Treasury
Department, each of whom receives a salary of $4,000 per year, and is
allowed a deputy at a salary of $2,500 per annum. No one auditor
Lakes rank over another. The first auditor receives and adjusts the
accounts of the revenue and disbursements, appropriations and expen-
ditures on account of the civil list and under special acts of Congress,
reporting the balances to the commissioners of the customs and first
comptroller respectively for their decision. The second auditor devotes
most of his attention to army affairs; looks after all the accounts re-
lating to the pay, clothing and recruiting of the army; the arsenals,
armories and ordnance; all accounts relating to the Indian Department;
reporting to the second comptroller. The third auditor has all accounts
for sustenance of the army, military academy, military roads, fortifica-
tions, quartermaster's department, certain pensions, claims arising for
military service previous to 1817; for all property lost in the military
service; he reports also to the second comptroller. The fourth auditor
also reports to the second comptroller, and attends to all accounts of
the service connected with the navy. The fifth auditor reports to the
first comptroller, and adjusts all accounts connected with the diplo-
matic service of the Department of State. The sixth auditor adjusts
all accounts growing from the service of the Post Office Department.
                      WAR DEPARTMENT.
   The War Department was organized in August, 1789. The head of
this department is known as the Secretary of War; is appointed by the
President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The War De-
partment attends to the execution of all laws affecting the Regular
Army, and carries out and performs such duties as may be provided
for by law or directed by the President relative to military forces,
military commissions and the warlike stores of the United States. In
former years this department also had charge of Indian as well as
military affairs, but this has been transferred to the Department of
the Interior. The War Department is also required, among other
duties, to maintain the signal service and provide for taking meteoro-
logical observations at various points on the continent, and give tele-
graphic notice of the approach of storms. There is also maintained a
Civil Engineering Department, through the aid of which is carried out
such improvements in rivers and harbors as may be authorized by Con-
gress. The Secretary of War also has supervision over the West Point
Military Academy.
    The private clerk for the head of the War Department is paid
$2,500 per year; assistant secretary, $5,000; chief clerk, $4,000. The
most of the subordinates and assistants in the War Department, except
those mentioned, are officers of the Regular Army, who are paid sal-
aries and perquisites.
the manufacture ot arms, etc. .The Topographical omce nas charge of
all plats and drawings of all surveys made for military purposes.
Besides these there are the Inspector-General's Department and depart-
ments devoted to war records, publications, etc.
    In this connection it may be of in*erest to the general reader to
refer briefly to a few facts concerning the keguiar Army. The United
States is divided for this purpose into a number of military districts.
The head of each department receives his general instructions and
orders from headquarters. The term of service in the Regular Army
is three years. The pay of private soldiers at the start is $15 per
month and rations, and this is increased according to time of service.
The pay of the officers is proportioned to their rank. The pay of
officer  in active service was fixed by an act of Congress May 11, 1908,
as tohows: lieutenant-general $11,000 per year; major-general $8,000;
brigadier-general $6,000; colonels from $4,000 to $5,000; lieutenant-
colonels from $3,500 to $4,500; majors from $3,000 to $4,000; captains
from $2,400 to $3,360; first-lieutenants from $2,000 to $2,800; second-
lieutenants from $1,700 tv $2,380. In case any officer below the grade
of major required to be mounted, provides himself with suitable mounts
at his own expense, he receives an addition to his pay of $150 per
annum if he provides one mount; and $200 per annum if he provides
two mounts. The pay of retired officers was fixed as follows by the
act of May 11, 1908: lieutenant-generals $8,250 per annum; major
generals $6,000; brigadier-generals $4,500; colonels from $3,000 to
$3,750; lieutenant-colonels from $2,625 to $3,375; majors from $2,250
to $3,000; captains from $1,800 to $2,520; first lieutenants from $1,500
$2,100, and second-lieutenants $1.275 to $1,785.
                     NAVY DEPARTMENT.
    The head of this department is the Secretary of the Navy, who is
appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum.
This department is charged with the duty of attending to the construc-
tion, armament, equipment and employment of vessels of war, as well
as all other matters connected with naval affairs, and appropriations
made therefor by Congress. The Secretary of the Navy has direct
control of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland;
issues orders to the commanders of the various squadrons; has general
authority over the Marine Corps; and has control of all the several
bureaus of the Navy Department.
    There are a number of bureaus organized in the Navy Department
for the purpose of more thoroughly handling the work, among the
most important of which may be mentioned the following: Bureau of
Steam Engineering; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery; Bureau of Nav-
igation; Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, Bureau of Yards and
Docks; Bureau of Ordnance; Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting;
Bureau of Construction and Repair. Attached to this department are
also officials or bureaus to attend to the following matters: Marine
Barracks, Washington, D. C.; Museum of Hygiene; Naval Dispensary;
Board of Inspection and Survey; Navy Supplies and Accounts; Naval
Observatory; Hydrographic Office; Lihrary and War Records; Naval
Intelligence; Nautical Almanac, etc.
    The admiral of the navy (line) is paid $13,500 per year; the first
nine rear-admirals each receive $8,000 per year and the second nine
$6,000; chiefs of bureaus are paid $6,000 per year; captains $4,000;
commanders $3,500; lieutenant-commanders $3,000; lieutenants $2,400;
junior grade lieutenants $2,000; ensigns $1,700; chief-boatswains, gun-
ners, carpenters, sail makers, $1,700; midshipmen at sea $1,400; mid-
shipmen at academy $600. In the Marine Corps the major general
receives $8,000 per year; colonels $4,000; lieutenant-colonels $3,500;
majors, $3,000; captains (line) $2,400; captains (staff) $2,600; first
lieutenants $2,000; second-lieutenants $1,700. An increase of ten per
cent is allowed them when on sea duty, or on "shore duty beyond the
sea." Chaplains of the rank of lieutenant-commander or higher rank
receive the pay and allowance of a lieutenant-commander; those ap-
pointed prior to July 1, 1906, who have the rank of lieutenant receive
$2,800; and others are paid according to their rank in the foregoing
list. Naval constructors receive from $3,200 to $4,200 per year; assis-
tant naval constructors $2,000 or the pay of rank according to the fore-
going table; warrant officers $1,125 to $2,250. Petty officers and chief
petty officers receive salary ranging from $33 to $77 per month. First
class seamen receive $26 per month; seamen-gunners $28 per month;
firemen, first-class, $38; ordinary seamen $21; firemen, second-class,
$33; shipwrights $27; apprentice seamen $18; coal passers $24. The
term of enlistment in the United States Navy *s four years.
    This is one of the most important brancnes of the National Gov-
ernment. Its head is the Postmister-General, who is appointed by the
President, and receives a'salary of $12,000 per annum. The Post Office
Department has supervision over the execution of all laws passed by
Congress affecting the postal service, and has general supervision over
everything relating to the gathering, carrying and distribution of United
States mails; superintends the distribution and disposal of all moneys
belonging to, or appropriated for, the department; and the instruction
of and supervision over all persons in the postal service, with reference
to their duties.
    In providing for handling the general work of the Post Office
Department it has been found necessary to create four bureaus, or
offices, as they are termed, each of which is presided over by an assis-
tant postmaster-general, who each receive $5,000 per annum; are all
subject to the direction and supervision of the head of the department.
A review of these various bureaus and their principal officials, with the
name of the office, will show very clearly the work handled by each.
    The first assistant postmaster-general is allowed a chief-clerk at
$2,500 per year; superintendent of salaries and allowances $4,000;
superintendent of division appointments $3,000; superintendent of city
free-delivery service $3,000.
    The second assistant postmaster-general has charge of the follow-
ing divisions, indicated by the following officials who are under his
control: superintendent of railway adjustments $3,000 per year; chief
of division inspection $2,000; chief of division of contracts $2,000; chief
of division of mail equipment; general superintendent of railway mail
service $4,000; superintendent of foreign mails $3,000.
    The third assistant postmaster general controls the following di-
visions: superintendent of money-order division $3,500; superintendent
of registry system $2,500; superintendent of division of finance $2,250;
superintendent of division of stamps $2,500; also the post-card agent
and the stamped-envelope agent at $2,500 each.
    The fourth assistant postmaster-general controls the following di-
visions: Superintendent rural free delivery service$3,000; superintend-
ent of post office supplies $2,500; superintendent of dead-letter office
$2,750; topographer $2,750.
    Besides the various chiefs of divisions mentioned above there are
connected with the Post Office Department a law clerk, at $2,500 per
year; appointment clerk, at $2,000; assistant attorney-general, $5,000;
a      -1sbursi  cle-l. 2. 2:2 . als ohe auditor of the post office deart-
ment, at $4,000.                                                  i
Copyright, 1917, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co.
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