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Dicke, Robert J. (ed.) / Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume XLIV (1955)

Smith, Lois K.; Shenefelt, Roy D.
A guide to the subfamilies and tribes of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) known to occur in Wisconsin,   pp. 165-219 ff. PDF (15.0 MB)

Page 165

Lois K. SMITH and Ro~ D. SHENEFELT2 
 The study of ichneumonids in Wisconsin was undertaken to obtain information
necessary to make better use of them in combatting our insect foes. Ichneumonid
larvae all parasitize insects or arachnids, either internally or externally.
Because of the large number of economically important pests among their hosts,
and the role which ichneumonids occupy in reducing their numbers, the family
is of great benefit to man. Before methods can be developed to favor these
insects by creating more desirable habitats, a knowledge of what is present
and the ecology and habits of the various species is necessary. Acquiring
a knowledge of what inhabits an area is thus the first step in a series designed
to take greater advantage of parasitic insects. 
 Adults of the family may easily be distinguished from other Hymenoptera
by the following characters. The flagellum has at least fifteen segments.
The sides of the pronotum reach or cover the first pair of thoracic spiracles,
and in winged forms extend to the tegulae. The first morphological segment
of the abdomen is fused solidly to the third thoracic segment, forming the
propodeum (which always bears a pair of spiracles). The trochanters of at
least the hind pair of legs are apparently double. The forewing has a distinct
stigma, the first cubital and first discoidal cells confluent (forming the
discocubital cell). and, except in Ophionellus, two recurrent veins. The
venter of the abdomen is never heavily sclerotized. 
 In this paper keys and other materials are presented to assist in placing
the adult members of the family in their respective subfamilies and tribes.
The taxonomic arrangement and nomenclature follow that given by Townes in
the Catalogue of Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico by Muesebeck and
 1 This work was supported in part by the Research Committee of the Graduate
School of the University of Wisconsin from funds supplied by the Wisconsin
Alumni Research Foundation. Published with the approval of the Director of
Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station. 
 2 Research Assistant and Associate Professor, respectively, Department of
Entoinology, College of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin. 

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