Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters
volume IV (1876-1877)
Jewell, J. S.
Mind in the lower animals, pp. 164-187 PDF (7.5 MB)
1G4 Visconsion Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. MIND IN THE LOWER ANIMALS. BY J. S. JEWELL, M. D., Professor of Mental and Nervous Diseases In the Chicago Medical College, and Correspond- ing Member of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. My subject is that of " the evidences of mind in the lower ani- mals." The first thing to be done, in a case like the present, is to define the meaning of the leading terms. This is one of the golden rules of discussion. Then what is mind? Before trying to answer this question, which, by the way, is not a new one, I should tell you that it was not my plan to determine, ex- cept in a superficial sort of way, what mind really is. It would require more than one lecture to deal adequately with that question. For my present purpose, it is sufficient to assume the existence of something, which may be 6alled mind, whether mo- tional or immotional, the presence and action of which is known usually by certain signs, by which beings possessed of mind are commonly distinguished from those that do not have it. It is with these signs, rather than the mind itself, that I am to deal. But once again, what is mind? It is much easier to ask this question than it is to answer it. You all know it has been, and at this hour it would be answered very differently by various persons, who have given themselves (following- different methods) to its study. But taking all these answers together, aside from unessential particulars, they may be divided into two principal classes, which are susceptible again of division into sub-classes. But I am to call your attention to the two principal classes mentioned. They may be described as follows: In the one case, the phenomena called mental are not attributed to any other agent or source than the material organism itself. In this view there is no such being as a mind numerically differ- ent from the body of the animal, neither before nor after death. The word mind is simply a name for the aggregate of functions of the nervous system, at any rate of its higher functions. There is no actual proof of the existence of any such immaterial, immor- tal entity, as that usually designated by the terms, mind, soul,
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