The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
Butterfield, C. W.
III.--Pre-territorial annals of Wisconsin, pp. 29-41 PDF (6.5 MB)
PRE-TERRITORIAL ANNALS OF WISCONSIN. Indian nations of Wisconsin. A striking episode in their subsequent history --the Black Hawk War--comes in, notwithstanding, as a part, incidentally, of the-annals of the State. Deserving a place in a notice of the Indian tribes of Wisconsin is the nation known as the POTTAWATTAMIES. As early as 1639, theywere the neighbors of the Winnebagoes upon Green bay. They were still upon its southern shore, in two villages, in 1'670; and ten years subsequent to that date they occupied, at, least in one village the same region. At the .expiration of the first quarter of the eighteenth century, a part only of the nation were in that vicinity -upon the islands at the mouth of the bay. These islands were then known as the Pottawattamie islands, and considered as the ancient abode of these Indians. Already had a large portion of this tribe emigrated southward, one band resting on the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, the other near Detroit. One peculiarity of this tribe- at least of such as resided in what is now Wisconsin - was their intimate association with neighboring bands. When, in 1669, a village of the Pottawattarnies, located upon the southeast shore of Green bay, was visited by Allouez, he found with them Sacs and Foxes and Winnebagoes. So, also, when, many years subsequent to that date, a band of these Indians were located at Milwaukee, with thlem were Ottawas and Chippewas. These "united tribes " claimed all the lands of their respective tribes and of other nations, giving the United States, when possession was taken of the western country by the General Government, no little troilble. Finally, by a treaty, held at Chicago in 1833, their claims, such as they were, to lands along the western shore of Lake Michigan, within the present State of Wisconsin, extending westward to Rock river, were purchased by the United States, with permission to retain possession three years longer of their ceded lands, after which time this " united nation of Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawattamies"-began to disappear, and soon were no longer seen in southeastern Wisconsin or in other portions of the State. Besides the five tribes - Menomonees, Winnebagoes, Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, and Pottawattamies -many others, whole or in part, have, since the territory now constituting the State was first visited by white men, been occupants of its territory. Of these, some are only known as having once lived in what is now Wisconsin; others - such as the Hurons, Illinois, Kickapoos, Mascoutens, Miamis, Noquets, Ottawas and Sioux, are recognized as Indians once dwelling in this region; yet so transitory has been their occupation, or so little is known of their history, that they scarcely can be claimed as belonging to the State. Commencing in 1822, and continuing at intervals through some of the following years, was the migration to Wisconsin from the State of New York of the remains or portions of four tribes: the Oneidas, Stockbridges, Munsees and Brothertowns. The Oneidas finally located west of Green Bay, where they still reside. Their reservation contains, over 6o,ooo acres, and lies wholly within the present counties of Brown and Outagamie. The Stockbridges and Munsees, 'who first located above Green Bay, on the east side of Fox river, afterward moved to the east side of Winnebago lake. They now occupy a reservation: joining the southwest township of the Menomenee reservation, in Shawano county, and are fast becoming citizens. The Brothertowns first located on the east, side of Fox river, but subsequently moved to the east side of Winnebago lake, where, in 1839, they broke up their tribal relations and became citizens of Wisconsin territory. III.-PRE-TERRITORIAL ANNALS OF WISCONSIN. When, in 1634, the first white man set foot upon any portion of the territory now consti, tuting the State of Wisconsin, the whole country was, of course, a wilderness. Its inhabitants, the aboriginal Red men, were thinly but widely scattered over all the country. JFAN NICOLET', a Frenchman, who had been in Canada since 1618, and had spent several years among the
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