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Trenk, Fred B. (Fred Benjamin), 1900- / Forest planting handbook
(1932)

Causes of failure in plantations,   pp. 14-16 PDF (814.7 KB)


Page 14


              Causes of Failures in Plantations
  There are four principal causes of failure of trees to survive after
planting, over which the tree planter has control. They are:
    1. Too small stock for the planting conditions
    2. Allowing the roots of the trees to become dried before they are
       planted
    3. Failure to tamp the soil sufficiently tight around the roots
    4. Heavy sod not sufficiently removed at time of planting.
  The choice of species and size of planting stock must be adapted
to the particular planting area selected. This will be emphasized in
the discussion of local planting conditions.
  If a tree is planted when the soil is warm enough to cause new
growth of root hairs, it becomes established quickly. However, if the
ground around the roots freezes deeply before the tree has started new
root growth, heavy loss is inevitable. It is for this reason that fall
planting should stop before freezing weather sets in, and spring plant-
ing should be delayed until the ground has become warm.
  Losses may be expected when the roots have been allowed to dry
out, or when the soil is not properly packed around them. These
losses can be avoided only by reasonable and constant care when the
trees are planted. The importance of sod in causing losses is shown fn
the table on page 10.    I
  Other possible causes for failure of survival are:
    1. Extreme drought immediately after planting
    2. Heavy freezing of the ground immediately after the trees are
       planted
    3. Heating of trees in bundles while in transit
    4. Delay in unpacking
    5. Setting the roots improperly in the holes (too deep, too shal-
       low, or crushing the stem of the tree when packing the soil)
    6. Flooding due to poor drainage or a very wet season
    7. Low spots subject to late frosts (frost pockets)
    8. Land wholly unsuited to the species of trees planted on it.
  All of the above possible causes of loss, except the factors of
drought and freezing, can be avoided if the stock is carefully chosen
and the trees are properly planted.
  Losses of trees after they have begun to grow occur, and these
losses are sometimes difficult to prevent. During years of severe out-
breaks of grub worms, young plantations have been attacked heavily.
This was observed to be the cause of many trees dying in young plan-
tations in southern Wisconsin during the summer of 1930. After the
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