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Milwaukee's community renewal program: urban renewal techniques
(May 1964)

II. Urban renewal defined,   pp. 5-6

Page 5

Urban renewal, perhaps inmost peoples' minds, has been more or less synonymous with federally assisted
clearance projects. Some may have additionally included governmentally assisted conservation as part of renew-
al. Both views are incomplete, however, since they do not account for the extensive remodeling and rebuilding
activity engaged in by private enterprise and by individual home owners on a single property basis. In both
dollar volume of construction and in the number of structures built or remodled in Milwaukee's older areas,
renewal on a "property here - property there" basis far exceeds that undertaken on a project basis. In order to
adequately account for all the activities involved, urban renewal should be viewed as a process whereby areas
of the community are rebuilt or otherwise upgraded in whole or in part by public and private enterprise:
1. It is a process... A continuing series of activities, not necessarily related to one another,
takes place.
2. ...,whereby areas of the community are rebuilt or otherwise upgraded... The continuing
series of activities takes the form of new building construction, repair or modernization of
existing construction, and the provision or improvement of supplementary public facilities
such as streets, parking, space, playgrounds, etc.
3. ... in whole or in part... In areas marked by substantial private renewal, many older build-
ings may not be replaced or rehabilitated; in governmentally assisted renewal projects all
buildings may or may not require replacement or rehabilitation.
4. public and private enterprise. Most new building construction and improvements to
existing buildings are undertaken by private enterprise. Facilities involving public uses such
as parks, streets, schools, and playgrounds are typically undertaken by public enterprise
(governmental agencies). Public enterprise may also assist private enterprise in the assembly
of land. In all cases, both are partners in the continuing development and renewal of the
Two broad kinds of urban renewal treatment have customarily been distinguished - conservation and re-
development. In conservation projects, the dominant kinds of activities are the continued maintenance and
preservation of buildings in good condition and the renovation of buildings in need of repair or modernization.
In redevelopment projects, the emphasis is on the demolition of substandard structures and their replacement
with new ones.

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