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Marder, Luse & Co. / Price list and printers' purchasing guide : showing specimens of printing type manufactured by Marder, Luse & Co., foundry, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
(1893)

Catalogue,   pp. [10]-172


Page 169

CHICAGO TYPE FOUNDRY.
TYPE-MAKING.
THE frequent inquiry, "How do you make type?" has induced us to print,
in a convenient form, the required information. These inquiries often
come from men who have handled type all their lives, and from men
who have a desire to know more of an industry that is so intimately associ-
ated with their business, and so indispensable to the dissemination of
general knowledge.
Type metal is a composition of lead, tin, antimony and copper, all of
which metals are necessary to give the required ductility, hardness and
toughness. No other composition has ever been found which so well an-
swers all the purposes for type-making.
The first step in the_
making of type is cutting
the letter desired, on tie(
end of a piece of fine steel,
forming the Punch, which
is afterward hardened. This                 PUN01.
is an operation requiring great care and nicety-there being comparatively
few adepts at it-that the various sorts in a font may be in harmony with
each other as to their proportions, width, height, 0tc. A separate punch is
required for each character in every font of type, and the making of them is
the most expensive operation in type-found-
ing. During the process of its manufacture
the punch is frequently tested or measured
by delicate gauges, to insure its accuracy.
When finished a smoke proof is taken, and if
the letter is pronounced perfect it is driven
into a piece of polished copper called the
Drive. This passes to the fitter, who makes
the width and depth of the faces uniform
throughout the font. They must then be
made to line exactly with each other. When
thus completed, the drive becomes the
Matrix wherein the face of the type is made.
This undergoes other processes in fitting
and finishing, to make it true and square
with the body of the type. Matrices are also
DRIVE.     made by the electrotype process, for the pur-  xmATR.
pose of copying and multiplying certain faces without incurring the great
expense of cutting new punches. The Mold in which the body is formed is
made of hardened steel, in two parts; one part is fastened to the machine
and is stationary, while the other is movable, so that it may be adjusted for
the proper width of the letters, as one is wider than another. The accuracy
of these molds is patent to every printer who knows that the sides of type
bodies must be exactly at right angles, or they would be useless,


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