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Leslie, C.E.; Randall. R.H. (ed.) / The conqueror
(c1880)

Elementary and theoretical studies,   pp. [3]-10


Page [3]

~9qq
iAl
ELEMENTARY AND THEORETICAL STUDIES.
EVERY musical sound has three properties: LENGTH, PITCH and
POWER, corresponding to the three departments in music, named
RHYTHMICS, MELODICs and DYNAMICS.
Notes are characters used to represent musical sounds. The stems
may be turned either upward or downward.
The length of a musical sound is indicated by the shape of the
note, as whole (a), half (?), quarter (P), eighth (P) and sixteenth(I)
note. The pitch is indicated by the position of the note on the staff.
Example:
The staff consists of five horizontal lines and the spaces that belong
with them. The staff is frequently enlarged by means of short
lines, called added or ledger lines, placed above or below.
Example:
Rests are characters used to represent silence. They are in length
the same as notes. As whole (-,-), half (--), quarter (r), eighth
(a) and sixteenth (;) rest.
A triplet is a group of three notes, with the figure 3 placed above
or below them, and should be performed in the time of two of the
same kind, thus:       a r
Perpendicular lines drawn across the staff are called bars. The
spaces between the bars are called measures.
A heavy line drawn acrossr the staff is called an enlarged bar, and
shows the close of a strain of music, or the end of a line of poetry.
Two heavy lines drawn across the staff forms what is called a double
bar, or close, and shows the end of the piece of music.
Bar.           Bar.
Enlarged Bar.    Double Bar or lo.
There are four kinds of time or measure, indicated by a fraction
placed on the staff at the beginnipg of a piece of music.
Double Measure.  Triple Measure.  Quadruple Meaure.  Sextuple Measure.
The upper figure shows the number of notes in a measure, and the
lower figure the kindof notes or their equivalent.
BEATING TIME, is indicating the different parts of a measure by a
movement of the hand, and is performed as follows.
Double Time-Down, up.
Triple Time-Down, left, up.
Quadruple Time-Down, left, right, up.
Sextuple Time-Down, down, left, right, up, up.
Double Time has two counts; Triple, three; Quadruple, four, and
Sextuple, six.
The peculiar stress of voice placed on certain parts of the measure
is called ACCENT.


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