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Dionísio, João / Leal Conselheiro: Introduction to the electronic edition / Leal Conselheiro: Introdução à edição electrónica

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Introduction to the electronic edition

A rationale

While the 'in progress' status of texts has been recognized by different trends of textual scholarship, namely by genetic criticism, a decentered and unromantic view of the authorial role has called attention to the collaborative process behind literary creation. Against the backdrop of approaches seeking to capture the movement of entities habitually seen as stable and to understand how authorial agency in a single work is frequently disseminated by several people, to propose an edition that is both a text in progress and a collaborative endeavor is hardly surprising. This is our twofold goal when launching this electronic edition of D. Duarte's Leal Conselheiro, a moral treatise finished in 1437-1438. Regarding this double goal, it seems adequate to transcribe two passages by authors D. Duarte knew well. The first passage comes from Alonso de Cartagena's prologue to his translation of Cicero's De Officiis and puts in evidence a somewhat utilitarian approach to tradition:

E ésta es por cierto la orden: que nos aprovechemos de los trabajos de los anteçesores e nosotros fagamos de que se aprovechen los sucçesores por que non sólo entre los omes de un tiempo, mas aun entre los que fueren en diversas hedades, sean comunicadas las obras. (Cartagena 205, lines 104-108).

We have tried to follow the order Cartagena refers to by acknowledging a legacy. That is why the present project pursues a long editorial tradition that started in 1842 with J. I. Roquette's edition, immediately followed by Francisco António Campos's in 1843. The first critical establishment of Leal Conselheiro came out in 1942 by the hand of the German philologist Joseph Piel, whose work was revised by Maria Helena Lopes de Castro in 1998. Taking into consideration this editorial lineage, instead of building a new edition from scratch, we favor the idea of paying tribute to all those people who, since the middle of the nineteenth century, have done their best to provide us with a dependable text. Instead of forgetting our predecessors, we would like to acknowledge and update their legacy. In attempting to do this, we bear in mind, for instance, what Gottfried Kreuz accomplished by following Michael Petschenig's edition of John Cassian's religious treatises. Kreuz managed to keep every reading proposed by Petschenig that is still perceived as sound today and surgically intervened in less than 20 passages (Espírito Santo 478).

If on the one hand we seek to accommodate the philological tradition, on the other hand there is every reason to believe that the present edition can be perfected through future contributions, some of them coming from members of the team behind this project, others from its users. To illustrate this point, we will refer to the second passage mentioned above which is found in a textbook on hunting written by João I, Duarte's father:

E porem rogamos a todollos monteiros que agora som, e aos que depois uierem, que em esto melhor souberem, que glossem sobre ello: ca os emperadores romanos fizerom as leyes, e porem non deixou o doutor Acursio de glossar ainda sobre ellas, e o Bardo nom leixou de sobre ellas muytas lecturas de fazer. E porem uos companheiros nom leixedes de fazer que quanto for milhor feita, tanto sera mais proueitosa a obra. (João I 117).

The critical establishment of the text by D. Duarte will be fine-tuned by adopting this collaborative ethos. Therefore, we most cordially invite contributions of colleagues, by sending corrections, new information, and suggestions to joaodionisio[at]campus[dot]ul[dot]pt. Every piece of information deemed pertinent will be credited.

This electronic edition comprehends an edited text, notes on person and place names, a critical apparatus with the most important readings by previous editors and a full digital facsimile of the Paris manuscript.

Protocols of Transcription

The text we offer here is based on Joseph Piel's protocols of transcription (Piel XXIII-XXV), into which some slight changes have been introduced (referred to below whenever convenient):

1. Words that appear as a single unit in the manuscript are separated, except when the second word is enclitic (oqual > o qual; but darlhe > darlhe). Unlike Piel, we have distinguished the causal porque from the final por que.
2. Proper names are capitalized in this edition (ingraterra > Ingraterra).
3. Abbreviations are silently expanded (jhu xpo > Jesu Cristo). Differently from what Piel proposes, we have expanded .s. into convem a saber rather than scilicet.
4. v and j take the place of u and i when they have a consonantal value (auer > aver; enueia > enveja).
5. i takes the place of j when this letter has a vocalic value (ujuer > viver).
6. y is maintained wherever it appears.
7. Accent marks are used when the pronunciation of a medieval form may be doubtful or when a word is liable to be confused with another (e.g. cárrego 'cargo', so that it is not taken for the verbal form carrego; medês 'mesmo', instead of medes; cantaróm, to indicate that this is the simple future form, and thus preventing confusion with the simple past cantarom). Apostrophes are introduced with the same goal (dobrar > d'obrar; sobresto > sobr'esto).
8. n or m take the place of ~ when the tilde stands for these consonants (mareãtes > mareantes; tẽpo > tempo). When it reproduces the nasal timbre, m or n are used especially where the Paris manuscript shows a preference for these graphic representations (paixõ > paixom; cõvem > convem).
9. Graphic representations that are not etymologically correct are maintained (e.g. hidade, veencer, magnifesto, etc.).
10. Changes on the manuscript reading are not highlighted by editorial signs apart from a discreet underline which points to an apparatus note. This means that we do not use any of the signs that are present in Piel’s edition.
11. Piel’s punctuation was kept except when a better alternative was found.

One of the most important changes in the present text, when one compares it with previous editions, is the introduction of numbered segmentation in order to facilitate cross reading.

Person and Place Names

Apart from apparatus notes, we have annotated person and place names according to Library of Congress Authorities (; Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal - Bases de Dados de Autoridades - Pessoa Física (; Portugal. Biblioteca Nacional, Siporbase: sistema de indexação em português: manual. Lisboa: Biblioteca Nacional, [1998]; and RAMEAU (Répertoire d’autorité-matière encyclopédique et alphabétique unifié) (


Although the apparatus we display is, so far, the most comprehensive of all editions of Leal Conselheiro, offering more information on the readings than any other edition, it is not a thorough device and it is intentionally incomplete. We deliberately omitted typographic mistakes overlooked by previous editors, on the grounds that, being unintentional, they do not pay justice to each philologist’s goal and perception. These omissions concern mostly the 19th century editions, which seem to have been carried out so rapidly that a large number of misreadings were an unavoidable outcome.

The apparatus is organized in an economic way. This means that when the succeeding editor, regardless of the protocols of transcription he/she uses, repeats a previous reading, we omit it in the apparatus. Although the first two editions were apparently published in different years (1842 and 1843), they were in fact prepared contemporaneously. Therefore, we decided to give both their readings systematically, even if they agree one with the other.

The abbreviations used in the apparatus are the following:

Roquette    Leal Conselheiro (...) seguido do Livro da Ensinança de bem cavalgar toda sella. Pref. Visconde de Santarém; ed. J.-I. Roquette. Paris, V.e J.-P. Aillaud, Monlon e, 1842. used through the revised ed. of 1854]
Rol.    Leal Conselheiro e Livro da Ensinança de bem cavalgar toda sela, escritos pelo Senhor D. Duarte. Ed. [Francisco António Campos]. Lisboa, Typographia Rollandiana, 1843.
Castro    Leal Conselheiro. Ed. Maria Helena Lopes de Castro. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda, 1998.
Piel    Leal Conselheiro o qual fez Dom Eduarte. Ed. Joseph M. Piel. Lisboa: Livraria Bertrand, 1942.

When pertinent information regarding the critical establishment of the text is found in a footnote in any of these editions, we provide that information in the apparatus referring to the abbreviations above followed by ‘(nota)’.


Cartagena, Alonso de. Libros de Tulio: De Senetute, De los Ofiçios. Ed. María Morrás. Madrid: Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, 1996.
Espírito Santo, Arnaldo do. Review of Cassianus, Collationes. Edidit Michael Petschenig. Editio altera supplementis aucta, curante Gottfried Kreuz. CSEL, vol. XIII, Wien Österreische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2004; and Cassianus, De Institutis coenobiorum, De Incarnatione contra Nestorium. Edidit Michael Petschenig. Editio altera supplementis aucta, curante Gottfried Kreuz. CSEL, vol. XVII, Wien, Österreische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2004. Euphrosyne. Revista de Filologia Clássica, nova série, volume XXXIII, Centro de Estudos Clássicos, Faculdade de Letras de Lisboa (2005): 477-478.
João I, D. Livro da Montaria. Ed. Francisco Maria Esteves Pereira. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade, 1918.
Piel, Joseph M. Prefácio. D. Duarte, Leal Conselheiro. Ed. J. M. Piel. Lisboa: Bertrand, 1942. IX-XXVI.

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