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Anslow, Florence / Practical millinery

Chapter VI: The cutting of materials and making of folds, pipings, and bows, etc., on the cross,   pp. 67-77 PDF (2.0 MB)

Page 67

 F cutting is to be done successfully, it is necessary that the 
    cutter shall know something about the weaving of the materials 
that are being handled. In the weaving of simple goods the 
warp-threads, which are the stronger ones, are the first laid in 
the loom; the weft-threads, being softer and finer, are then 
woven into the warp-threads by means of a shuttle. 
   The shuttle turns over the warp-threads at the edges of the 
goods, and as it travels to and fro across the width of material 
and over both edges, it forms a " self edge " or selvedge running
the length of the piece of stuff. This selvedge way is therefore 
the stronger one and should bear the greater strain in wear. 
   The twill or grain in materials runs diagonally across the goods. 
Silks, mourning crape, and other materials are woven with a 
twill or grain. Velvet, velveteen, and other materials with a 
cut pile, are shaded light or dark according to the way the pile 
lies. The smooth way, or the direction in which the pile lies, 
is lighter than the way against the pile. The cloth should be so 
cut as to show the darker shade, which is the richer one. 
   CUTTING ON THE CROSS.-Material is often cut on the 
cross for millinery purposes, because if so cut it gains elasticity, 
and can be strained to fit smoothly over edges and curves. The 
material can also be folded and draped much more softly and 
gracefully than if cut on the straight. The " cross " is obtained
by cutting diagonally across the warp- and weft-threads of the 
material (Fig. 1) where, as will be seen, the distances A-B and 
A-C arc equal. Incidentally a perfect cross-cut so made leaves 
a " corner" of material which is often in demand for draping 
crowns, etc. 

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