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Germany (Territory under Allied occupation, 1945-1955 : U.S. Zone). Office of Military Government. Civil Administration Division. / Population changes, 1947 : U.S. Zone Germany
(1948)

Section VI: assimilation of refugees,   pp. 33-36 PDF (2.0 MB)


Page 35


______________ -POPULATION CHANGES 1947.
The present labor market situation favors a rapid increase in the
employment of refugees. Because of the monetary situation and the low level
of wages and salaries, demand for labor is inflated in comparison with the
vol-
ume of production, and for the same reasons labor supply is restricted. Many
individuals are not inclined to work because of low earnings in occupations
which are legal and normal. They prefer to live on their savings, black mar-
ket operations, or any other kind of gainful activity outside the restrictions
of official wage and salary rates. The native population is better able to
live in this way than refugees, who have practically no savings either of
money or property. Furthermore, the majority of refugees live in the country
where opportunities for earning a living outside the regular labor market
are
not as favorable as in the cities. Under present conditions, therefore, neces-
sity to work under legal labor conditions is more pressing on the refugees
than on the natives.
This condition results in an indirect economic penalty against
refugees which is difficult to avoid. Insofar as it is based on the difference
in money savings, the situation will last until the enactment of a monetary
reform. In most cases it will last even lonaer as refugees lost almost all
their personal property, whereas only completely bombed-out families, com-
prising a minority of the native population, had similar losses.
With the increase of employment,the number of unemployed refugees
decreased. In Bavaria the number of unemployed at the end of December 1947
was 64,047 as compared with 126,466 at the end of March 1947. In spite of
this decrease, the rate of unemployment among the labor force is still rela-
tively high, and much higher among refugees than among natives, as is shown
below:
TABLE XXIV
BAVARIA PERCENTAGE RATES OF UNEPLOTMSENT
REFUGEES AND NATIVES
Month
(1947)
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Refugees
23.3
20.5
18.0
16.0
13.8
12.6
11.7
11.3
10.9
10.8
* For figures from which the rates are calculated see
Appendix 0N".
J Including resident foreigners.
This high unemployment rate among refugees seems to be a contradic-
tion of the fact that they are under a greater necessity to work than the
native population. In a normal labor market, the greater need for work results
in a lower rate of unemployment as the worker under pressure must accept
any
job offered to him, even one involving poor wages and working conditions.
35
May 1948
l-
Nativeev
9.9
8.8
B. 1
7.3
6.4
6.0
5. 8
5.6
5.4
5.6


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