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Germany (Territory under Allied occupation, 1945-1955 : U.S. Zone). Office of Military Government. Civil Administration Division. / Population changes, 1947 : U.S. Zone Germany
(1948)

Section III: growth through immigration,   pp. 11-18 PDF (3.2 MB)


Page 13


POPULATION CHANGES 1947_
Theoretically, the figure for uncontrolled immigration includes
intersonal immigration as well as immigration from foreign countries. Uncon-
trolled immigration from foreign countries, however, was unquestionably very
small, so that almost all of the 128,400 uncontrolled immigrants can be as-
sumed to have come from other zones and Berlin.
AS the estimate of uncontrolled immigration is based on ration card
count (and all other known types of immigration and emigration) the figure
of
128,400 includes only those individuals who crossed the border uncontrolled
and are now receiving ration cards, that is, are now living legally within
the U.S. Zone. Individuals who crossed the border illegally and who are now
living in the U.S. Zone without ration cards and without police registration
are not Included in the estimate. It is hazardous even to guess the number
of these cases.
The volume of interzonal migration in 1947 indicates that the unrest
which prevailed during and after the war has continued up to the present.
While
interzonal migration is partly the natural consequence of compulsory migration
during the past years, it is also partially due to differences in living
con-
ditions among the zones. For this reason it cannot be expected that this
migra-
tion will cease now or in the immediate future.
One of the most important factors contributing to interzonal migra-
tion was the natural attempt of families to reunite. Many families were sep-
arated by evacuation during the war and by population transfers during the
postwar period. The wish to reunite probably explains to a large extent the
entrance of 70,600 refugees into the U.S. Zone by controlled migration from
other zones and Berlin. However, this can hardly explain the total volume
of
intersonal influx. The conclusion to be drawn is that apart from these move-
ments there was a considerable interzonal immigration into the U.S. Zone,
due
to the more attractive political and economic conditions prevailing there.
It
is impossible to ascertain statistically from which zones these immigrants
came.
According to the reports of many eye-witnesses and the observations of the
bor-
der police, a large part of them are refugees legally or illegally crossing
the
border between the Soviet Zone and the U.S. Zone. For instance, in December
1947, from a total of 10.770 border travel violations in Bavaria, 6,697 or
62.2
percent were Germans attempting to enter the U.S. 4one from the Soviet Zone.
The reasons given for their coming are varied; some because of opposition
to
the existing political system, while others state they are afraid of registra-
tion for compulsory labor within the Soviet Zone.
D. Return of Prisoners of War
Apart from interzonal immigration, the most important element in total
i-igration into the U.S. Zone was the return of German prisoners of war.
Through official channels, 216,400 PWs were released into the U.S. Zone in
1947.
This comprises approximately half the total immigration.
It must be emphasized that the return of German PWs represents immi-
gration only in a technical or statistical sense. Sociologically, it is not
immigration at all and has quite different effects if compared with other
types
of immigration. PWs are men mostly in the age group 20 to 40; they effectively
increase the labor force as the lack of young physically-fit workers is one
of
the weaknesses in the present labor market situation.
In June and July 1947, German agencies carried out an official regis-
tration of PMs and missing soldiers in Bavaria, Wuerttemberg-Baden and Hesse.
13
May 1948


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