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Bunk, Brian D., 1968-; Pack, Sasha D.; Scott, Carl-Gustaf (ed.) / Nation and conflict in modern Spain: essays in honor of Stanley G. Payne
(2008)

Scott, Carl-Gustaf
The Swedish left's memory of the International Brigades and the creation of an antifascist postwar identity,   pp. 151-173 ff.


Page 170

NATION AND CONFLICT IN MODERN SPAIN 
112. A couple of shorter articles about the volunteers did, however, appear
in 1956 in conjunction 
with the commemoration of the war's 20-year anniversary. See the special
anniversary issue of 
Clarte, 2 (1956): 2-8; and Axel Osterberg, "De kdmpade mot Franco,"
Julfacklan (1956): 4-7. 
Osterberg's article is of particular interest, since Julfacklan was a Social
Democratic publication. 
The article noticeably omits the fact that the overwhelming majority of the
Swedish Bridgadistas 
were Communists. 
113. J6nsson, 18-20: and Lundvik, 183-85, 188. 
114. At the time, this trend was also discernable in other West European
countries. Yngvar Ustvedt, 
Arbeider under vdpen. Norske frivillige i den spanska borgerkrig (Oslo: Gyldendal
Norsk Forlag, 
1975), 12. 
115. Nilsson, Svenskar i spanska inbi'rdeskriget (1972); and Arvid Runeberg,
En svensk arbetares me- 
moarer (Stockholm: Arbetarkultur, 1973). See also list of memoirs in note
134 below. In addition 
to these new nonfiction works, a number of novels about the Swedish Brigadistas
came out in this 
period, most of which also cast them in a heroic light. Risberg, 184-88.
116. Rundberg, Frisco-Per, (1985); Kerstin Gustafsson and Mekki Karlsson,
Spaniens sak var var 
(Stockholm: Svenska Fredskommitten, 1992); Jdrdel, (1996); and Lundberg,
(2001). 
117. This interest was by no means exclusively limited to the Brigadistas
but extended to the war as a 
whole. Starting in the 1970s there was suddenly a sharp jump in new scholarly
studies about Sweden 
and the Spanish Civil War. J6nsson, (1974); Kennerstr6m, (1974); Reiner,
(1975); Isabel Borras, 
"Svenskarna och det spanska inb6rdeskriget. En bibilografi," (master's
thesis, University College 
of Bords, 1977); Karin Sj6strand, "Svenska f6rfattares engagemang i
spanska inb6rdeskriget," 
(master's thesis, University College of Bords, 1979); and G6ran Henrikson,
"Spaniens sak var vatr. 
Solidaritetsr6relsen i Orebrolan 1936-1939," in Folkri'relser i Orebroln.
Mdinniskor och milj6'er 
(Orebro: Orebroldns Museum, 1979), 61-87. In these years, the Swedes' heightened
interest in the 
Brigadistas (and the war) was further bolstered by reports of the Franco
regime's escalating repres- 
sion against domestic dissidents. 
118. Sten Cederqvist, "Solidaritet-en bok med sikte pa opinonsbildning,
debatt och solidaritetsak- 
tioner," in Solidaritet. Antifascistisk Arsbok 1968-69, ed. Kjell E.
Johansson (Uddevalla: Bo 
Cavefors F6rlag, 1968), 7-10. This parallel was also often drawn by the former
volunteers them- 
selves. See, for instance, Sixten Rogeby, "Internationella brigaderna
i Spanien-ett 30-arsminne," 
Tidsignal, 12 (1966): 6-7: and Rolf Skandevall, "Vi f6rlorade Spanien,
men Vietnam ska segra," 
Vietnambulletinen, 3 (1972): 17-22, 26. 
119. For specific illustrations, see VPK, Spaniens sak dr var (G6teborg:
Proletirkultur, 1975), 16-26; 
and Sixten Rogeby, De stupadefir Spaniens demokrati (Stockholm: Arbetarkultur,
1977), 16-17, 
137-43. 
120. Carl-Gustaf Scott, "A good offense is the best defense: Swedish
Social Democracy, Europe, and the 
Vietnam War" (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005). 
121. For a specific illustration, see Arne Larsson, Knuten nive (G6teborg:
Bokf6rlaget Skrivare i 
Marginalen, 1995), 85-86. Larsson, a former volunteer, complains about the
Social Democrats' 
attempt to usurp the memory of the Swedish Brigadistas, not least in light
of the latter's dismal 
record on the war. 
122. Here it should be noted that even Bj6rk is critical of the government's
timid approach to the war. 
Bj6rk, 146, 157. 
123. Bjdrk, 17, 25, 37-39, 52-54, 133, 152-53,176-77. 
124. Lundvik, 164. 
125. Bj6rk, 54, 107. 
126. Lars Olsson and Lars Ekdahl, Klassi ri'relse. Arbetarr'relsen isvensk
samhdllsutveckling (Stockholm: 
ARAB, 2002), 93; and Bj6rk, 18-22. 
127. For a specific illustration of a Social Democratic tribute to the Swedish
Brigadistas, see Pierre 
Schori, Dokument inifrin. Sverige och storpolitiken i omvdlvingarnas tid
(Stockholm: Tidens F6rlag, 
1992), 208. 
128. Sixten Rogeby, De stupade fd'r Spaniens demokrati (Stockholm: Arbetarkultur,
1977), 5-6. In 
1976-1977, the Social Democratic majority in Stockholm's municipal government
threw its sup- 
170 


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