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Bunk, Brian D., 1968-; Pack, Sasha D.; Scott, Carl-Gustaf (ed.) / Nation and conflict in modern Spain: essays in honor of Stanley G. Payne

Jensen, Geoffrey, 1965-
The practice and politics of Spanish counterinsurgency, 1895-1936,   pp. 137-150

Page 149

The Practice and Politics of Spanish Counterinsurgency, 1895-1936 
such as Ruiz-Fornells, held notably more progressive political views than
the africanistas, who 
rejected what they characterized as the overly-scientific, "European,"
and Enlightenment- 
oriented emphasis on Napoleonic-style regular warfare. This status quo had
managed to 
maintain its dominant position in elite Spanish military culture for a surprisingly
long time, 
but it eventually lost credibility and thus influence as its approach to
military study proved 
less relevant. Those who found success on the battlefields of Morocco (like
the French advo- 
cates ofguerre re"volutionnaire years later) tended to approach political
situations as they had 
confronted military problems-in a way that left little room for the solutions
of the liberal 
status quo, whether advocated by Spanish Republicans in the 1930s or their
counterparts of 
the French Fourth Republic two decades later. Thus, the relative effectiveness
of methods 
advocated by more conservative and antiliberal officers could affect the
ideological outlook 
of leading officers as much as it colored their operational thought. The
corresponding rise 
of a new, highly influential circle of officers in turn served to strengthen
the political prestige 
and authority of Franco and his like-minded colleagues. 
1. Peter Paret, French Revolutionary Warfare from Indochina to Algeria: The
Analysis o'a Political and 
Military Doctrine (New York: Praeger, 1964). Alistair Home's classic A Savage
War of Peace: Algeria 
1954-1962 (New York: Viking, 1977) remains a very useful history of the Algerian
2. Stanley G. Payne, Politics and the Military in Modern Spain (Stanford,
1967); Carolyn P. Boyd, La 
politica pretoriana en el reinado de Alfonso XII, trans. Mauro Hernandez
Benitez (Madrid, 1990). 
3. Thilo Jens Wittenberg, "Mut und Ehre: Die professionelle, ideologische
und politische Entwicklung 
des spanischen Offizierkorps im 19. Jahrhundert (1808-1908)," (Ph.D.
diss., Albert-Ludwigs- 
Universitit, Freiburg i. Br., 1995), 5. 
4. Wittenberg, esp. 10-30; Jose Alvarez Junco, Mater dolorosa: La idea de
Espafia en el siglo XIX 
(Madrid: Taurus, 2001), 119-84; Angel Ganivet, Idearium Espaiol con Elporvenir
de Espana, ed. E. 
Inman Fox (Madrid: 1990), 77-87. 
5. Gary Sheffield's Forgotten Victory: The First World War, Myths and Realities
(London: Headline, 
2001) refers repeatedly to the notion of an effective "learning curve"
in its analysis of the British 
army in World War I. 
6. John Lawrence Tone, "The Machete and the Liberation of Cuba,"
Journal of Military History, 62 
(January 1998), 11-16. 
7. Quoted in John Lawrence Tone, War and Genocide in Cuba, 1895-1898 (Chapel
Hill: University of North 
Carolina Press, 2006), 120. On Martinez Campos' attitude and approach to
the war in general, 113-21. 
8. Tone makes this argument very convincingly in War and Genocide. See also
Gabriel Cardona and 
Juan Carlos Losada, Weyler. Nuestro hombre en la Habana (Barcelona: Planeta,
9. On reconcentration in Cuba see Tone, War and Genocide, esp. 193-224. 
10. Ibid., 196, 150. 
11. Cardona and Losada, 50. 
12. Valeriano Weyler, Memorias de un general. De cahallero cadete a general
en jeft, ed. Maria Teresa 
Weyler (Barcelona: Ediciones Destino, 2004), 63-64; Cardona and Losada, 50.
13. Wittenberg, 29. 
14. Weyler, 54. 
15. Weyler. 65; Cardona and Losada, 50-51, 187-89. 
16. Weyler, 63-64, 69-72. 
17. Tone, War and Genocide, 233-35. 

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