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Bunk, Brian D., 1968-; Pack, Sasha D.; Scott, Carl-Gustaf (ed.) / Nation and conflict in modern Spain: essays in honor of Stanley G. Payne
(2008)

Getman-Eraso, Jordi W.
Pragmatism unveiled : the meanings of revolutionary rhetoric in Spanish anarchosyndicalism,   pp. 31-50


Page 45

Pragmatism Unveiled 
Manuel Benavides, Guerra y revolucion en Cataluna (Mexico: Ediciones Tenoctitlan,
1946); Bolloten, 
The Spanish Civil War; Payne, Spain's First Democracy; Paul Preston, The
Coming of'the Spanish Civil 
War. Reform, Reaction and Revolution in the Second Republic 2nd edition,
(London: Routledge, 
1994); Pamela Radcliff, From Mobilization to Civil War. The Politics of Polarization
in the Spanish 
City of Gijon 1900-1937 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); Sebastian
Balfour and 
Paul Preston, eds., Spain and the Great Powers in the Tiventieth Century
(London: Routledge, 1999); 
Stanley Payne, Fascism in Spain 1923-1977 (Madison: University of Wisconsin
Press, 1999); Nigel 
Townson, The Crisis of Democracy in Spain. Centrist Politics under the Second
Republic 1931-1936 
(Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2000); Helen Graham, The Spanish Republic
at War 1936-1939 
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). 
5. The revolutionary aims of the CNT were clearly laid out in the founding
congress and confirmed at 
each major national congress thereafter. Congreso de Constituci6n de la Confederaci6n
Nacional del 
Trabajo (CNT), Palacio de las Bellas Artes, 30 de octubre a 1 de noviembre
de 1910 (Barcelona, 1976); 
Confederacion Regional de Cataluna, Memoria del Congreso celebrado en Barcelona
los dias 28, 29, 
30 dejunio y 1 deJulio de 1918 (Barcelona, 1918); CNT, Memoria del Congreso
celebrado en el Teatro 
de la Comedia de Madrid los dias 10 al 18 de diciembre de 1919 (Barcelona,
1932); CNT, Memoria del 
Congreso Extraordinario de la CNTcelebrado en Madrid los dias 11 al 16 dejunio
de 1931 (Barcelona, 
1932); and El congreso confederal de Zaragoza, 1 de mayo de 1936 (Madrid,
1978). At the local level, 
affiliated syndicates stressed in their statutes the commitment to the principles
and objectives estab- 
lished at CNT congresses and the use of accepted tactics of struggle. See,
for example, "EstatutosSin 
dicatodeServiciosPublicos,"Barcelona, 1931, PS Barcelona 939, Archivo
Historico Nacional-Seccion 
Guerra Civil, (hereafter, AHN-SGC); "Reglamento porque se ha de regir
el sindicato metal urgico de 
Gijon afecto a la C.N.T. domiciliada en la casa de pueblo," April 1930,
PS Gij6n K46, AHN-SGC. For 
a comparative analysis of national congresses, see Miguel Gonzailez Urien
and Fidel Revilla Gonzalez, 
La C.N.T. a traves de sus Congresos (Mexico: Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1981).
6. These insurrectionary attempts came to be known as the tres ochos (three
eights), taking place on 
January 18, 1932; January 8, 1933; and December 8, 1933. Though successful
in a handful of small 
towns, where comunismo libertario was temporarily established (at least in
essence), overall each of the 
ochos was an unmitigated failure, with few militants actually taking to the
streets. Detailed accounts of 
the revolts can be found in John Brademas, Anarcosindicalismo y revoluci6n
(Espluges de Llobregat: 
Ariel, 1974); Jose Peirats, La CNT en la revoluci6n espaniola (Madrid: Ruedo
Iberico, 1978); and 
Julia"n Casanova, De la calle alfrente. 
7. For the October 1934 uprising, see Paco Ignacio Taibo II, Asturias 1934,
2 vols. (Gijon: Jufcar, 1984); 
Angeles Barrio Alonso, Anarquismo y anarcosindicalismo en Asturias (1890-1936)
(Madrid: Siglo 
Veintiuno Editores, 1988); Adrian Shubert, The Road to Revolution in Spain:
The Coal Miners of 
Asturias, 1860-1934 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987); and Bunk.
8. This distinction became especially notable in Catalonia, where the UGT
struggled to overcome its 
active participation in the political process. Xavier Cuadrat, Socialismo
y anarquismo en Cataluna 
(1899-1911). Los origenes della CNT (Madrid: Ediciones Revista del Trabajo,
1976); Jose Luis 
Martin Ramos, Els origens del Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya (Barcelona:
Curial, 1977); Pere 
Gabriel, "Sindicalismo y Sindicatos socialistas en Catalunya. La UGT,
1888-1938," Historia Social 1, 
(1990): 47-71; andDavid Ballester, Marginalidadesy hegemonias: la UGTde Cataluna
(1888-1936) 
(Barcelona: Ediciones del Bronce, 1996). General studies on the UGT and PSOE
include Amaro del 
Rosal, Historia del a UGT en Espafia, 1901-1937 (Madrid, 1977); Manuel Contreras,
El PSOE en la 
II Republica: Organizaciin e ideologia (Madrid, 1981); and Santos Julia',
Madrid, 1931-1934. De la 
fiesta popular a la lucha de clases (Siglo Veintiuno Editores: Madrid, 1984).
9. Jose Manuel Macarro, "La disolucion de la utopia en el movimiento
anarcosindicalista espafiol," 
Historia Social 15, (Winter 1993): 146-47. 
10. Antonio Elorza, La utopia Anarquista bajo la Segunda Republica (Madrid:
Editorial Ayuso, 1973); 
Brademas, Anarcosindicalismo y revoluci6n; Juan Gomez Casas, Historia del
anarcosindicalismo 
espaiol (Buenos Aires: Editorial ZYX, 1969); Juan Gomez Casas Los anarquistas
en el Gobierno 
1936-1 939 (Barcelona: Editorial Bruguera, 1977); Kern, Red Years, Black
Years; Eulalia Vega, El 
treintisme a Catalunya. Divergencies ideologiques en Ia CNT (1 930-1 933)
(Barcelona: Curial, 1980); 
Eulalia Vega, Anarquistas y sindicalistas durante Ia Segunda repubhlica.
La CNT y los Sindicatos de 
Oposiciuin en el Pais Valenciano (Valencia: Institucio Valenciana d'Estudis
i Investigacio, 1987); 
Graham Kelsey, Anarchosyndicalism, Libertarian Communism and the State. The
CNT in Zaragoza 
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