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Bunk, Brian D., 1968-; Pack, Sasha D.; Scott, Carl-Gustaf (ed.) / Nation and conflict in modern Spain: essays in honor of Stanley G. Payne

Bunk, Brian D., 1968-
"A shape note of pugnacity" : conservative youth groups in Spain, 1914-1939,   pp. 15-29 ff.

Page 28

33. Ibid., 302,303,308. 
34. Montero, "Juventud," 114. 
35. Watanabe, 160, 312. 
36. The "parent" organization was the dictator's Union Patri6tica.
On the legacy of UP see Shlomo Ben- 
Ami, "The Forerunners of Spanish Fascism: Uni6n Patri6tica and Uni6n
Monirquica," in Spain in 
Conflict, 1931-1939. Democracy and its Enemies, ed. Martin Blinhorn (London:
Sage Publications, 
1986). See also, Eduardo Gonzalez Calleja, La Espaiia de Primo de Rivera.
La modernizaciin auto- 
ritaria 1932-1930 (Madrid: Alianza editorial, 2005) and Shlomo Ben-Ami, Fascism
from Above: The 
Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in Spain, 1923-1930 (Oxford: Clarendon Press,
37. Alejandro Quiroga Fernandez de Soto, "Perros de paja: las Juventudes
de la Union Patriotica," Ayer 
59, no. 3 (2005): 80. 
38. Protests on campus were largely the result of actions by the liberal
student organization Federacion 
Universitaria Escolar (FUE), founded in 1926. In addition, demographic shifts
and the Primo de 
Rivera regime's emphasis on developing the educational system had led to
an explosive rise in the 
number of students attending university. In 1922 the total number of students
was 18,696; by 1929 
the figure had grown to almost 60,000. Gonzailez Calleja, La Espafia de Primo
de Rivera, 86, 90. 
39. Quiroga Fernindez de Soto, 89. 
40. An Italian publication concluded that the dictatorship's inability to
mobilize the support of young 
people had contributed to its downfall. Payne, Fascism in Spain, 36-37. 
41. Quiroga Ferna'ndez de Soto, 71-72, 86, 91-92. 
42. The JUMN was formed in 1930, and its top men included many former leaders
of JUP. Quiroga 
Fernaindez de Soto, 93-94. On the JUMN's parent, the Union Monarquica see,
Ben-Ami, "The 
Forerunners of Spanish Fascism," 114-26. For Juventudes Mondrquicas
Independientes see Eugenio 
Vegas Latapie, Memorias politicas. El suicido de la Monarquia y la Segunda
Republica (Barcelona: 
Editorial Planeta, 1983), 74-85. 
43. Payne, Fascism in Spain, 61, 63. 
44. Quoted in ibid., 59. 
45. Quoted in ibid., 104. 
46. Ramiro Ledesma Ramos, Fascismo en Espafia? Discurso a las Juventudes
de Espafia (Espulgues de 
Llobregat: Ediciones Ariel, 1968), 209-10, 255-56. 
47. Gil Pecharroman, 153. 
48. Payne, Fascism in Spain, 89, 92. 
49. By 1936 over half of FE's membership was under 21 years of age and this
caused some tensions, 
especially after the fusion with the JONS, between the youths and the older,
original members of 
the party. Ibid., 100, 141, 165. 
50. "Discurso de la fundaci6n de la Falange Espanola" (speech,
Teatro de la Comedia, Madrid, October 
29, 1933). Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, Escritos y Discurso. Obras completas
(1922-1936), ed. 
Agustin del Rio Cisneros (Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Politicos, 1976),
1:191, 194. 
51. Eduardo Gonzalez Calleja, "The Symbolism of Violence during the
Second Republic," in The 
Splintering of Spain. Cultural History and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939,
ed. Chris Ealham and 
Michael Richards, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 38-42. 
52. Payne, Fascism in Spain, 81, 303. 
53. A contemporary account of the formation of the JAP can be found in Jose
Monge y Bernal, Accion 
Popular. Estudios de biologia politica (Madrid: Saiez Hermanos, 1936). See,
also Jose Maria Gil 
Robles, Nofue posible la paz (Barcelona: Ariel, 1968), chapter 10. 
54. Ba"ez y Perez de Tudela, 125, 126. The JAP also owed something to
Primo de Rivera's JUP as both 
organizations claimed the Virgin of Pilar as patrons. Quiroga Fernfindez
de Soto, 88. 
55. Simon Lowe, "The Juventud de Accion Popular and the 'Failure' of
'Fascism' in Spain, 1932-1936" 
(master's thesis, University of Sheffield, 2000), 12. For a discussion of
the problems with sources 
see, 10-11. 

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