Bunk, Brian D., 1968-; Pack, Sasha D.; Scott, Carl-Gustaf (ed.) / Nation and conflict in modern Spain: essays in honor of Stanley G. Payne
Bunk, Brian D., 1968-
"A shape note of pugnacity" : conservative youth groups in Spain, 1914-1939, pp. 15-29 ff.
Conservative Youth Groups in Spain, 1914-1939 placed the group under even tighter controls.69 The Carlist movement was another monarchist organization that sought to mobi- lize youth to destroy the Republic and initiate an authoritarian monarchy. With the fall of Primo de Rivera, the group soon began to regroup and reorganize its energies toward effecting dramatic political change. One result of this reformulation was the creation of a highly militarized section of young adherents. The movement's steadfast anti-Republican position had already begun to attract elements who had originally affiliated with Juventud de la Union Monirquica Nacional. Eventually the Carlists relaunched themselves as the Carlist Traditionalist Communion in 1932.71' As part of the new movement, the Carlists formed a student group called Agrupacin Escolar Tradicionalista (AET), which, in part influenced by the rise of Hitler in Germany, became increasingly radicalized over the course of the Republic.7' The formation of the student group represented the growing importance of young people within Carlism during the Republic. Martin Blinkhorn characterized the organization in Andalusia as a "youth movement" that played a significant role in electing several young (in their 20s or 30s) deputies to the parliament. The strength of Carlism in the south of the country and the growing importance of the younger generation crystallized with the naming of Manuel Fal Conde (at age forty) head of the national movement in May 1934. The increasing role played by young people is also reflected in the fact that while the movement as a whole gained members during the Republic, it was the youth sections that saw the most dramatic growth.72 By early 1934 the movement boasted of having 700,000 adherents and over 800 youth sections.73 Along with the AET the organization founded the Juventud Espahola Tradicionalista and a group for children called Pelayos. Members paid a special tithe to generate funds in support of the youth organizations. The radicalization of the youth, and the entire movement, accelerated in the final years of the Republic. Perhaps the most important effect was the development of the Carlist militia called the Requeti, which recruited youths, especially those with military potential, from AET. By 1935 special emphasis was placed on military training in order to be prepared for what they saw as an inevitable rising against the Republic.74 During 1934-36 the AET worked closely with the Fascist student group and contributed to the rising level of political violence, especially in Madrid.71 The start of the Civil War in July 1936 significantly changed the landscape for conser- vative youth groups. Some, including the JAP, withered and died during the war, while oth- ers prospered. Since the uprising had been planned and led by members of the armed forces, the needs of the military overshadowed the desires of the conservative political organizations and their youth groups. The effective mobilization and utilization of young people quickly became a priority for the Nationalist regime. Soon many of the youth militias organized by FE or the Carlists were placed under military command, and within a year plans began to be made for the development of an organization that would indoctrinate young people and encourage support for the new regime. Franco and the other leaders of the uprising recog- 25
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