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Germany (territory Allied occupation, 1945-1955 : U.S. Zone). Office of Military Government. Civil Administration Division. / Denazification, cumulative review. Report, 1 April 1947-30 April 1948.
(1948)

Denazification cumulative review,   pp. 1-13 PDF (6.6 MB)


Page 1

DENAZIFICATION
DENAZIFICATION CUMULATIVE REVIEW
The Formation,. the Denaifica      Progra
While the period covered by this cumulative review is the 13 months from
1 April 1947 to 30 April 1948, certain portions of the early history of the
dena-
zification program are included, in order to provide a background for the
current
survey.
The denazification of Germany, which has as its threefold purpose to strengthen
and assist the democratic elements in Germany, to provide security, and to
puntsh
the active Nazis and militarists, was me of the prime objectives of the occupation.
The groundwork for the Military Government denazification policy was laid
by the
Joint Chiefs of Staff in a directive issued in April 1945. 1/ The Potsdam
Four-
Power Declaration restates these aims:
"...Nazi leaders, influential Nazi supporters and high officials
of Nazi organizations and institutions and any other persons
dangerous to the occupation or its objectives shall be arrested
and interned.
"All members of the Nazi Party who have been more than nominal
participants in its activities and all other persons hostile to
Allied purposes shall be removed from public and semi-public
office, and from positions of responsibility in important private
undertakings. Such persons shall be replaced by persons, who, by
their political and moral qualities, are deemed capable of assist-
ing in developing genuine democratic institutions in Germany*" 2/
All subsequent Military Government directives have been based on these two
docu-
ments.
The denazification program became operative when the first troops occupied
the border towns of Germany; the first Special Branch office was established
in
Aachen following its capture in October 1944. The function of the Special
Branch
was to investigate the political backgrounds of Germans in public office
and in
important positions in quasi-public and private enterprises for the purpose
of remov-
ing more than nominal Nazis and militarists from these offices and positions.
The
authority for carrying out these investigations had been established by Supreme
Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Forces (SHAEF) prior to the invasion of
Normandy
in Laws No. 1 and 5. 3/ Germans in positions where political reliability
was
demanded were required to submit pertinent information in a detailed questionnaire
known as the Fragebogen. Instructions for the evaluation of Fragebogen according
to the degree of participation in the Nazi Party had also been prepared in
advance
and were put to use in the early days of denazification. It was not until
the 9th
of November 1944, however, that SHAEF published a directive formally defining
cate-
gories of Nazis whose non-employment was mandatory. /
After the dissolution of SHAEF, a new denazification directive was published
by the U.S. Forces in the European Theater (USFET) on 7 July 1945, t/ and
this
directive was in force in the U.S. Zone until the promulgation of the Law
for Libera-
tion on 5 March 1946. With two major differences, the 7 July directive followed
closely the policy and procedure patterns incorporated in the SHAB? directive.
In
defining the degree of culpability of members of the Nazi Party, the USFET
directive
established the membership date of 1 May 1937 to divide active (i.e., removal
man-
datory) from nominal (removal discretionary) Nazi party members, whereas
the SHAEF
/ Directive 1067/6 of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.  See Annex A for text.
i/ From the Potsdam Agreement of 2 August 1945. See Annex E for text.
]/ See Annex F (Law No. 1) and Annex G (Law No. 5) for text.
i   See Annex B for text.
E/ See Annex C for text.
APRIL 1948


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