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Kaminski, John P.; Saladino, Gaspare J.; Moore, Timothy D. (Historian); Lannér-Cusin, Johanna E.; Schoenleber, Charles H.; Reid, Jonathan M.; Flamingo, Margaret R.; Fields, David P. (ed.) / Ratification of the Constitution by the states: Maryland (1)
11 (2015)

Introduction,   pp. xxi-lvi


Page li

INTRODUCTION
were listed by name: James McHenry, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer,
Daniel Carroll, John Francis Mercer, and Luther Martin. On the fol-
lowing day, the two houses adopted a resolution to pay the delegates.
The act that appointed the five men was signed into law on 26 May. A
quorum of delegates had only just been reached in Philadelphia.72
The Constitutional Convention
Maryland's delegates to the Philadelphia Convention were men of
significant stature in the state. McHenry had served as a surgeon in the
Continental Army and, later, as assistant secretary to General George
Washington and aide-de-camp to General Lafayette. An Irish immigrant
to the fledgling United States, McHenry eventually settled in Baltimore,
where he established himself as a merchant and land developer. Jenifer
had long been a Maryland political insider. His service to both the
proprietary regime and the Revolutionary-era government bore witness
to the fact. A Charles County planter of means, Jenifer had distinguished
himself in many areas of Maryland state politics. Carroll, a Montgomery
County planter, hailed from one of Maryland's distinguished families.
Carroll had also established his reputation during years of repeated
officeholding on the state level. Along with Pennsylvanian Thomas
FitzSimons, he was one of two Catholic delegates to sign the Constitu-
tion. Mercer was a relatively recent arrival to the state, having settled
in Maryland in 1785. A Virginia planter who had served during the
Revolution, Mercer, along with Martin, represented the Antifederalist
perspective within the delegation. Martin was the final member of the
delegation. Unlike his fellow delegates, who primarily represented Mary-
land's planting and mercantile interest, Martin was a lawyer. Born in
New Jersey, Martin relocated to Baltimore, where he embarked on a
multi-decade tenure as Maryland's attorney general. His reputation as
a litigator would only expand, principally for his later defense of Aaron
Burr during the famous 1807 treason trial.73
With the exception of Martin, none of the other Maryland delegates
participated in any decisive way during the four months of the Federal
Convention. Jenifer and Martin, who appeared in the Convention on
2 and 9 June 1787, respectively, attended more of the secret proceed-
ings than other Maryland delegates. McHenry and Carroll were also
present for significant portions of the Convention. Mercer attended for
less than two weeks, 6-17 August. Martin's opposition to the proceed-
ings of the Convention and the plan of government produced by it was
noteworthy. Naturally distrustful of the Virginia Plan for its potential
to increase the prominence and power of that state and other large
states, like Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, Martin supported William
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