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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

XVIII: The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia,   pp. 630-659 PDF (12.6 MB)


Page 656

 656 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II 
the sultan al-Ashraf accepted this, merely postponing his invasion until
he had completed the conquest of the Frankish territories. In the spring
of 1292, he marched on the patriarchal see of Hrom gla. The citadel resisted
for thirty-three days and was finally taken by assault on May 1 1. Terrible
slaughter followed; many of the monks were killed, others were carried into
captivity together with the catholicus Stephen IV himself. The Egyptians
looted the churches and the residence of the catholicus; they destroyed or
stole the precious relics and church treasures.45 The capture of Hromgla
was celebrated as a great victory; the sultan wrote to the qadi Ibn-al-Khuwaiyi
to announce the event; he was received with special honors at Damascus, and
for seven days the trumpets con tinued to sound in the cathedral and candles
burned all through the night.46 
 The Egyptians did not immediately enter Cilicia, but in May 1293 the army
stationed at Damascus received orders to march on Sis. Ambassadors were sent
in great haste by the Armenians; they were forced to cede the remaining fortresses
on the eastern front — Behesni, Marash, and Tall Hamdun, and to double
the tribute they had been paying theretofore. 
 The murder of the sultan al-Ashraf late in 1293, the troubled reign of the
usurper Kitbogha, and the famine and plague which spread in Egypt and Syria
gave a breathing-spell to the Armenians. Hetoum, who had abdicated in favor
of his brother Toros III in 1292, was urged to return two years later. 47
He strengthened the ties with Cyprus — the only other Christian kingdom
surviving in the Levant — by giving his sister Isabel in marriage to
Amairic, the brother of king Henry II. He also tried to revive the Mongol
alliance and set out to visit the Il-khan Baidu. While he was waiting at
Maragha, where he was able to save from destruction the Syrian church erected
by Rabban Sauma and to protect the Nestorian patriarch Mar Yabhalãhä
III, Ghazan wrested the power from Baidu. Heçoum went to pay him homage.
From Ghazan he received the assurance that the Christian churches would not
be destroyed, and it is probable that he also received the promise of military
assistance.48 On his return to Sis in 1295 he arranged a marriage 
 L. Alishan, Hayabadoum, pp. 500—502. 
  Al-Jazari (tr. Sauvaget), La Chronique de Damas, pp. 15-16 and appendices
I and II. 
 47 Hetoum II, converted to the Roman church, had entered the Franciscan
order. A brave soldier and a devout Christian, his frequent vacillations
between the throne and the monastery weakened the royal authority at a time
when a strong hand and an uninterrupted policy were sorely needed. 
  J. B. Chabot, "Histoire du patriarche Mar Jabalaha III," ROL, II (1894),
137—139; Bar Hebraeus, Chronography, p. 506. 


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