Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
XVIII: The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, pp. 630-659 PDF (12.6 MB)
656 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II the sultan al-Ashraf accepted this, merely postponing his invasion until he had completed the conquest of the Frankish territories. In the spring of 1292, he marched on the patriarchal see of Hrom gla. The citadel resisted for thirty-three days and was finally taken by assault on May 1 1. Terrible slaughter followed; many of the monks were killed, others were carried into captivity together with the catholicus Stephen IV himself. The Egyptians looted the churches and the residence of the catholicus; they destroyed or stole the precious relics and church treasures.45 The capture of Hromgla was celebrated as a great victory; the sultan wrote to the qadi Ibn-al-Khuwaiyi to announce the event; he was received with special honors at Damascus, and for seven days the trumpets con tinued to sound in the cathedral and candles burned all through the night.46 The Egyptians did not immediately enter Cilicia, but in May 1293 the army stationed at Damascus received orders to march on Sis. Ambassadors were sent in great haste by the Armenians; they were forced to cede the remaining fortresses on the eastern front — Behesni, Marash, and Tall Hamdun, and to double the tribute they had been paying theretofore. The murder of the sultan al-Ashraf late in 1293, the troubled reign of the usurper Kitbogha, and the famine and plague which spread in Egypt and Syria gave a breathing-spell to the Armenians. Hetoum, who had abdicated in favor of his brother Toros III in 1292, was urged to return two years later. 47 He strengthened the ties with Cyprus — the only other Christian kingdom surviving in the Levant — by giving his sister Isabel in marriage to Amairic, the brother of king Henry II. He also tried to revive the Mongol alliance and set out to visit the Il-khan Baidu. While he was waiting at Maragha, where he was able to save from destruction the Syrian church erected by Rabban Sauma and to protect the Nestorian patriarch Mar Yabhalãhä III, Ghazan wrested the power from Baidu. Heçoum went to pay him homage. From Ghazan he received the assurance that the Christian churches would not be destroyed, and it is probable that he also received the promise of military assistance.48 On his return to Sis in 1295 he arranged a marriage L. Alishan, Hayabadoum, pp. 500—502. Al-Jazari (tr. Sauvaget), La Chronique de Damas, pp. 15-16 and appendices I and II. 47 Hetoum II, converted to the Roman church, had entered the Franciscan order. A brave soldier and a devout Christian, his frequent vacillations between the throne and the monastery weakened the royal authority at a time when a strong hand and an uninterrupted policy were sorely needed. J. B. Chabot, "Histoire du patriarche Mar Jabalaha III," ROL, II (1894), 137—139; Bar Hebraeus, Chronography, p. 506.
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