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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

XVIII: The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia,   pp. 630-659 PDF (12.6 MB)


Page 636

 636 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II 
Abigharib, lord of Bira; he imprisoned Constantine of Gargar in the fortress
of Samosata, where he died; he captured Ravendan near Cyrrhus, and the territories
ruled by Pakrad.8 Thus, with minor exceptions, all the Armenian possessions
outside Cilicia passed into Latin hands, and it must have become evident
to Toros I that if he wished to remain free and master of his lands, he would
have to be careful not to antagonize his powerful and ambitious neighbors.
 Therefore, realizing the weakness of his position, he pursued a cautious
policy. His land had been plundered by the Moslems in 1 107 and again in
1 1 10/1 1 1 1 when a larger army descended on Anazarba without meeting any
resistance. Toros kept aloof also from the battles fought against the Turks
in 1 1 12/1 1 1 3 within his own territories, but in 1 1 18 he took part
in the siege and capture of ' Azäz by Roger of Antioch, sending a contingent
of troops under the leadership of his brother Leon. Toros gave assistance
also to Arab, one of the sons of Killj Arsian I, when Arab revolted against
his brother Mas'üd. Mas'üd was the son-in-law and ally of Gumush
tigin Ghãzi, the Dänishmendid, which was probably the principal
reason for the Dänishmendid invasion of Cilicia early in the reign of
Leon I (1129—1137). While Gumushtigin Ghazi was invading from the north,
Bohemond II of Antioch entered Cilicia from the east. The reasons for the
break with Antioch are not known; the anonymous Syrian Chronicle reports
that Armenian brigands had been plundering the lands of Gumushtigin Ghazi
and that Bohe mond had suffered similarly. The two invading armies, unaware
of one another's advance, met in the plain north of Mamistra, and Bohemond
was killed in the encounter. While the Franks, deprived of their leader,
hastily retreated, Leon occupied the passes and killed many of the fugitives.
Gumushtigin Ghäzi withdrew without pur suing Leon, but returned the
following year (1 13 1), seized several forts, and imposed a tribute on the
Armenians. 
 Leon did not long remain inactive. In 1 132, taking advantage of the fact
that both Gumushtigin Ghãzi and the Franks were occupied elsewhere,
he seized Mamistra, Adana, and Tarsus, and he followed these conquests in
1 135 with the capture of Sarvan tikar, a fortress built near the point of
convergence of the northern routes that crossed the Amanus. His growing power,
and especially the foothold he had gained on the Syrian border, alarmed the
Franks; the combined forces of Raymond of Poitiers, the new prince of Antioch,
and Baldwin of Marash, with contingents sent by king Fulk of Jerusalem, entered
Cilicia. Leon, assisted by his nephew 
8 See volume I of the present work, chapter XII, pp. 387—391, 405.


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