University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
The History Collection

Page View

Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

XVII: The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1191-1291,   pp. 599-629 PDF (17.1 MB)


Page 628

 628 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
of Hugh's burning desire to root out what he regarded as heretical opinions.
Latin and Greek archbishops hurled excommunications at each other, while
the secular authorities tried vainly to keep the peace. Finally Germanus
appealed to Rome, and Alexander IV referred the matter to Odo, whose decision
was embodied in the Constitutio Cypria or Bulla Cypria of Anagni (July 3,
1260). There upon Hugh retired again to Tuscany, though he kept his title
of archbishop of Nicosia until his death in 1267. 
 The Constitutio Cypria attempted to settle the relationship of the two churches
for the future, but it could not eliminate all seeds of controversy. It confirmed
the reduction of the Greek sees to four and provided that after the death
of Germanus, who was made independent of the Latin hierarchy in the island,
the Latin arch bishop should be sole metropolitan. A series of lengthy articles
dealt with the oath of obedience to be taken by newly elected Greek bishops,
their rights and jurisdiction.71 
 Alexander TV's constitution brought no peace. "Heresy" still flourished;
the schism endured. Greeks who conformed were ex communicated by Greeks who
resisted. The civil arm refused to intervene to punish recusant Greeks. The
fear that, with the fall of Latin Constantinople, the new Byzantine emperor
might take advantage of Cypriote disaffection to make a landing in the island
proved unfounded, but discontent smouldered on, though no acute outbreak
occurred until early in the next century. In about 1 2 80 or shortly thereafter
the Latin archbishop, Raphael, issued a constitu tion giving instructions
to the Greek clergy for their discipline, ritual, and administration, which
was to be read four times a year by the Greek bishops to clergy and laity.
The tone of the document, which speaks of the Greek prelates as merely "tolerated",
while the Latin were "ordained", was not such as to assuage the bitter feelings
of the Greeks. It charged the Greek clergy with being ignorant and slack,
but perhaps such a charge could have been brought with equal justice against
the Latin clergy. The struggle continued and was ended only with the expulsion
of the Latins by the Turks in the sixteenth century. Today such monuments
as the noble thirteenth-century cathedral of Hagia Sophia (now a mosque)
in Nicosia and the magnificent fourteenth-century ruins of the Pre monstratensian
abbey of Bellapais in the north alone bear wit ness to the once dominant
position of the Latin church in the island. 
 71 For a summary of the Constitutio Cypria, see Hill, History of Cyprus,
III, 1059 ff., and Hackett, Orthodox Church in Cyprus, pp. 114—123.


Go up to Top of Page