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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311

XVII: The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1191-1291,   pp. 599-629 PDF (17.1 MB)

Page 627

and mules, and then burnt. Sentence was carried out, but since some of their
bones remained unconsumed, they were mixed with the bones of unclean animals,
so that they might not be venerated as relics, and burned again (1 23 1).
69 The Orthodox world was stirred to its depths. Germanus wrote Gregory IX
a letter singularly mild, considering the provocation, and the pope in 1233
dispatched two Dominicans and two Franciscans to confer with the patriarch,
but their mission accomplished little. 70 
 In 1240 Gregory sent new instructions to Eustorgue not to allow Greeks to
celebrate mass unless they had taken an oath of obedience to the Roman church,
and had renounced their heretical opinions, especially in regard to unleavened
bread (azymes). In answer, the Greek bishops stripped the churches and monasteries
of their remaining treasures and, together with the principal monks and priests,
secretly left the island. Gregory then directed Eustorgue to fill the vacancies
with Latins. 
 Innocent IV decided to try a more conciliatory policy. In 1247 he appointed
his penitentiary, the Franciscan Lawrence, as legate to the east with instructions
to protect the Greeks from molestation by the Latins. In 1248 a new legate,
Odo of Châteauroux, cardinalbishop of Tusculum, arrived in Cyprus with
Louis. IX to continue the work of conciliation. Many Cypriote ecciesiastics
returned. Odo's task was complicated by the death of archbishop Eustorgue
in April 1 250 at Damietta and by the election in his place of Hugh of Fagiano,
who, with fanatical zeal, chose to ignore the pope's injunctions to leave
the Greeks in peace, and issued various haras sing orders. Odo allowed the
Greek bishops to elect and consecrate a new metropolitan, Germanus Pesimandrus,
with the under standing that the Greek suifragan bishops might ignore the
Latin archbishop and promise obedience directly to Germanus, while the latter
was to promise obedience directly to the holy see. Archbishop Hugh was so
angry that he placed the kingdom under an interdict and retired temporarily
to his native Tuscany. 
 Odo continued his attempt to carry out the papal policy of tolerating the
rites and usages of those Greeks who had returned to the Roman obedience,
but he soon had to leave Cyprus, and Innocent IV died in December 1254. Nothing
now stood in the way 
 69 The legate Pelagius has been charged with responsibility for the death
of these Greeks, but he himself died in 1230, a year before their execution:
see Donovan, Pelagius and the Fifth Crusade, p. 504, and Hill, History of
Cyprus, III, 5049, note I, correcting H. T. F. Duckworth, The Church of Cyprus
(London, 1900). 
70 For fuller details of this mission than are given by Hackett or Hill,
see R. L. Wolff, 
"The Latin Empire of Constantinople and the Franciscans," Traditio, II (1944),

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