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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311

XII: The Crusade of Frederick II,   pp. 429-462 PDF (20.5 MB)

Page 455

in Syria, he risked losing his Sicilian kingdom, but if he abandoned the
Holy Land, he would be dishonored and his position weakened in the eyes of
the Christian world. Fortunately for him, al-Kämil himself was still
busy besieging Damascus. 
 When negotiations were resumed, they led, therefore, to a peace described
by an Arabic source as "one of the most disastrous events of Islam". 95 Al-Maqrizi
says that al-Kämil was universally blamed for the treaty, "and his conduct
was severely judged in all coun tries".96 Unfortunately, no complete copy
of the treaty survives either in Arabic or in Latin. It is possible to reconstruct
it only from extracts included in letters to the pope from the patriarch
Gerald and the Teutonic master, Hermann of Salza, and in a letter of Frederick
to the king of England, as well as from occasional references, with differing
emphases, in both Arabic and Christian sources.97 Al-Kãmil surrendered
Jerusalem, giving Frederick the right to make such disposition of it as he
desired — obviously including the right to fortify it. In writing to
the king of England, Frederick said, "we are allowed to rebuild the city
of Jerusalem in as good a state as it has ever been . ." 98 Frederick also
received Bethlehem and Nazareth, with the villages along the routes to Jerusalem,
part of Sidon district, and Toron, dominating the coast. All these places,
with the exception of Toron, he could refortify, while al-Kãmil, as
Frederick puts it, was not allowed "till the end of the truce, which is agreed
on for ten years, to repair or rebuild any fortress or castles". 99 
 The settlement with respect to the city of Jerusalem, although drawn up
in a spirit of tolerance almost inconceivable of the thirteenth century,
evidently proved to be a chief difficulty in the negotiations and the item
least acceptable to Christians and Moslems alike. Al-Iiaram ash-Sharif, the
sacred enclosure, including both the Aqsa mosque and the Qubbat as-Sakhrah
(the Temple of Solomon, or Dome of the Rock) remained in the possession of
the Moslems, with full freedom to worship there, provided they were 
  Badr-ad-Din al-'Aini, ' Iqd al-jaman (RHC, Or., II, part I), p. 187. 
 96 "Histoire d'Egypte," ROL, IX, 526. 
  For the fragment see Huillard-Breholles, III, 86 ff.; for the letters of
Gerald and Hermann, ibid., pp. 90 ff. and 102 ff. Frederick's letter is in
Roger of Wendover, Flores historiarum, II, 365 ff. See also the useful analysis
of the treaty in J. LaMonte's notes to Philip of Novara, The Wars of Frederick
II against the Ibelins, pp. 36 ff., n. 4; and below, chapter XX, p. 702.
 98 Roger of Wendover, Flares historiarum, II, 367. The question of the refortification
of Jerusalem is obscure, some of the Arabic sources stating positively that
it was not permitted. See Grousset, Croisades, III, 318 ff.; and below, chapter
XX, p. 702. 
  Roger of Wendover, Flares historiarum, II, 367. 

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