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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311

VI: The Latin Empire of Constantinople, 1204-1261,   pp. 186-233 PDF (13.5 MB)

Page 198

archbishoprics. <9> Western monasticism also took root; the military
orders and the Cistercians were followed before long by the Franciscans.
 Among the Latins themselves, grave controversies raged on ecclesiastical
matters. The pope combated fiercely the efforts of the Venetians to create
a perpetual monopoly of the patriarchate for themselves. Before allowing
Morosini to come to Constantinople, the Venetians required him to swear never
to accept any non-Venetian as a member of the cathedral chapter of Hagia
Sophia. They forced each such newly appointed Venetian canon to swear in
turn never to vote for any but a Venetian patriarch. Innocent III secured
through his legates the appointment of a few non-Venetians to the cathedral
chapter. He further prescribed that the praepositi of thirty French churches
in Constantinople should participate equally with the predominantly Venetian
cathedral chapter in electing future patriarchs. He forced Morosini to abjure
his oath publicly. But when Morosini died in 1211, the Venetians forcibly
prevented the French clergy from participating in the new election, which
thus resulted in a double choice. The pope himself eventually named the new
patriarch, after an interval of four years; he chose Gervase, archbishop
of Heraclea, a Venetian, but the candidate of the French party. Similarly,
in 1219, the papal legate John Colonna sought, by the mass creation of new
French praepositi entitled to vote in a new election, to swing it away from
the Venetians. The new pope, Honorius III, eventually named the third patriarch,
Matthew, also a Venetian, and rebellious, money-grubbing, and biased in favor
of his fellow-Venetians. Between them, popes Innocent and Honorius and their
legates successfully prevented the Venetians from making good their extreme
claims. But they thereby weakened the Latin patriarchate as an institution.
And by the early 1230's, when pope Gregory IX reversed their policy, permitted
the patriarch to appoint to the thirty conventual churches, and even appointed
him papal legate, the decline in the fortunes of the Latin empire had gone
so far that the act seems only a gesture. 
 Within the empire itself, Latin clerics and laymen struggled over the question
of church property. The treaty of March 1204 had provided that the property
of the Byzantine churches be divided among the victors along with the rest
of the booty, leaving only enough to permit the clergy to live "honorably".
Needless to say, patriarch and pope alike began soon after the conquest to
 9 R. L. Wolff, "The Organization of the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople,"
Traditio, VI (1948), 33-60. 

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