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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

IV: Byzantium and the Crusades, 1081-1204,   pp. [unnumbered]-151 PDF (14.1 MB)


Page 137

Ch.IV BYZANTIUM AND THE CRUSADES 137 
until 1158. Manuel's successes in Apulia aroused the hostility of Venice,
and William grew in strength. The Greeks were trapped and badly defeated
at Brindisi. Pope Hadrian IV, who had been wooed by Manuel, had judged it
expedient to come to terms with William in June 1156. In Germany Frederick
was cooling off, and a Byzantine embassy to his court in 1157 had no success.
In 1158 Manuel had to sign a thirty years' truce with William, and he evacuated
his troops from Italy. 
 By now Manuel must have realized the difficulties caused by Frederick's
imperial ambitions, and perhaps also the hazardous nature of military action
in a country where, in spite of lavish expenditure of money, he could count
on no secure base and no sure ally. He did not abandon his western policy,
but henceforth he concentrated on diplomacy which, if more cautious than
formerly, yet still showed his resourcefulness and determination. The flow
of embassies and correspondence between Constantinople and the western powers
was unceasing. Manuel tried to utilize the rift between the papacy and Barbarossa,
negotiating first with Hadrian and then with his successor Alexander III.
From 1159 to October 1177 there were cordial relations between Alexander
and Manuel and discussion of the terms on which the Byzantine emperor might
receive the imperial crown from the pope. Manuel offered financial aid and
ecclesiastical reunion. At this time Alexander feared Barbarossa, who was
supporting an anti-pope; hence his negotiations with Constantinople, Sicily,
and France. But with the formation of the Lombard League, the pope became
less dependent on Manuel, and after the treaty of Venice (1177) and the defeat
of Manuel at Myriokephalon, any real hope for a Byzantino-papal understanding
faded out. 
 From the outset Manuel had responded to pope Alexander III's overtures,
and had also hoped for the support of Louis VII in a concerted attack against
Frederick in 1163, which however came to nothing. He then turned to the project
of a marriage alliance with Sicily. William I had died in May 1166 and his
heir was a boy of thirteen, William II. According to Romuald Guarna of Salerno,
Manuel proposed that the Norman should marry his daughter Maria, who was
then his heiress (his son Alexius was not born until 1169). She was already
betrothed to Bela (III) of Hungary, but apparently Manuel was prepared to
throw over this arrangement and its advantages, possibly as a counter-move
to Frederick Barbarossa's fourth expedition to Italy in that year (1166),
and perhaps with the hope of being himself crowned by the pope as sole 


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