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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

III: The Crusades of Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI,   pp. 86-122 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 119

Ch. III THE CRUSADES OF FREDERICK I AND HENRY VI 119 
envoys, and promised to crown Aimery personally at a subsequent date. Meanwhile
he entrusted the archbishops of Trani and Brindisi with the mission of taking
to Aimery on his behalf the symbol of investiture, a golden scepter. A similar
request from Leon II of Cilician Armenia must have revealed to Henry again
the great impression his impending arrival in the east was making there.
He may well have thought of renewing the ties which his father had maintained
with the new Serbian and Bulgarian dynasties. The precarious position in
which this encirclement would put the Byzantine emperor must have been clear
to him. A successful crusade would sink a large German anchor in Syria and
Palestine. 
Henry maintained the pressure upon Constantinople by demanding from Alexius
III Angelus tribute sufficient to pay for the mercenary troops he had promised
to contribute to the crusading army. The original sum demanded (five thousand
gold pounds) was reduced after negotiation to one thousand six hundred talents,
and Alexius was obliged to institute a very unpopular special tax, the "Alamanikon"
('A~ap~avtKov see:(image) or "German levy", to meet the demand.
From this levy Constantinople escaped only at the death of the German emperor.
Even before this, Henry had arranged for the marriage of Irene, the daughter
of the blinded Isaac, to his brother Philip of Swabia (May 25, 1197). She
was the widow of Roger, the son of Tancred of Lecce, who had been the last
Norman king of the Italian south.42 Henry had found her in Palermo after
his ruthless crushing of the 1194 revolt. It was rumored in the west that
Isaac had agreed to accept the pair as his heirs to the Byzantine throne.
In any case, the man who was browbeating Alexius III into support of a western
crusading venture had now, like Robert Guiscard and William II before him,
acquired a Byzantine pretender, and could pose as the defender of the rights
of Isaac's children. The setting was thus prepared for the later intervention
of Philip of Swabia in the counsels of the leaders of the Fourth Crusade.43
 Meanwhile, at the diet of Geinhausen (October 1195), and in December at
Worms, German princes had been enrolling for the crusade. At Worms, Henry
sat for hours in the cathedral together with the papal legate receiving crusading
oaths. At the diet of Wurzburg (March 1196), the German arrangements were
completed. The date of departure from Germany was set finally, after Henry's
return to Italy, for Christmas 1196. The large and impressive band of German
princes, more than the equal of those who 
 42 On Tancred, see above, chapter I, pp. 39-41. 
 43 On Philip of Swabia and the Fourth Crusade, see below, chapter V, pp.
166-173. 


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