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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

III: The Crusades of Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI,   pp. 86-122 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 115

Ch. III THE CRUSADES OF FREDERICK I AND HENRY VI 115 
could have preserved the morale and unity of those who were left, it still
might have made its mark upon the east. As it was, a few left immediately
for home from Cilician ports. The rest of the army divided into three groups,
one going from Tarsus to Tripoli by sea, a second with duke Frederick to
Antioch by sea, and a third overland to Antioch. Frederick reached Antioch
on June 21 and was joined by the land force, which had lost many men. Here
"after such great labors, lack of food, and torments of hunger, they
wanted to rest and recoup themselves", when plague struck them. It carried
away bishops Godfrey of Wurzburg and Martin of Meissen, margrave Hermann
of Baden, burggrave Burkhard of Magdeburg, counts Florent of Holland, Poppo
of Henneberg, and Wilbrand of Hallermund, and the advocate Frederick of Berg.
Duke Frederick, tempted by a career of conquest in northern Syria, did not
start for Acre until late August. He moved first down the coast to Tripoli,
and from Tripoli to Tyre, where count Adolf of Holstein took ship for Germany
to defend his lands against Henry the Lion. Early in October Frederick arrived
at Acre. 
 In September some Germans who had preferred the sea route from the west
arrived at Acre - Frisians and Flemings under James of Avesnes and a group
of Saxon nobles including counts Otto of Guelders and Henry of Altenburg.
The fleet of sixty ships, which had left Cologne in February 1189, and had
gathered up Netherlanders and English on the way, had been stranded in Portugal
fighting for its king. Landgrave Louis of Thuringia, sailing from Brindisi
to Tyre, had also reached Acre, but left for home, critically ill, in October
and died en route. 
 Frederick's troops, decimated further by Moslem attack on the way from Antioch
to Tripoli, and depleted by shipwreck, were unable to exert any great effort
before Acre. Death and disease still further reduced German manpower to a
pitiful remnant of what had been its strength even after Iconium. "One
. . . could believe that human affairs had at that time come to an end. .
. . Unprecedented destruction and pestilence laid everybody low, without
exception, so that they who did not die at Antioch, when they sought a postponement
of their death and sailed in their sickness to Acre, died there; and those
who, though sick, stayed to besiege that city, were taken with a like death."
Bishop Dietpold of Passau went in November, together with his canons and
clerics. Duke Frederick of Swabia died on January 20, 1191, and was buried
in the cemetery of the German Hospital, a foundation of burghers from Bremen
and L├╝beck, which the duke had maintained and which was soon 


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