Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
III: The Crusades of Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI, pp. 86-122 PDF (16.5 MB)
110 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II the 24th, duke Frederick crossed with his division. Rain on Easter Sunday, the 25th, made it possible for the army to attend religious services rather than to "labor exclusively in the work of crossing the straits". On the following three days the rest of the army crossed, "in joy and exultation". Barbarossa himself crossed on the 28th, "with the last of his troops, screened by five war-galleys and by other vessels, while the Greeks sounded their trumpets on the sea and on the shore. . . . We were now translated from the west into the east . . . from Europe into Asia." In spite of the treaty of Adrianople, the march through mountainous Byzantine territory in Asia Minor to the Selchükid border was not altogether peaceful. Once again, this seemed pure treachery to the crusaders. Once again, it is possible that they failed to realize the feebleness of the Byzantine central government, and the conditions of near-anarchy prevailing in Asia Minor, as in the Balkans. "With their accustomed treachery the Greeks violated the peace pact, and day after day harassed the more careless of our men, killed some who were not armed, and stole the goods of those who were killed."27 Bad feeling between Byzantines and Latins at Philadelphia almost led to the destruction of the city by the Latins, who found no provisions and supplies awaiting them. They had "hoped for good merchandise from the governor and citizens of Philadelphia", but "those citizens, from a certain rash scorn, not only did not supply the promised provisions and merchandise, but certain more imprudent ones even ventured to bait our men with haughty words" and isolated skirmishes arose.28 The brawls were settled by negotiation between Frederick and the governor of the city, who reminded the emperor "that all Christians ought to be moved with mercy for the aforementioned city, seeing that it, old and alone, had till now resisted the neighboring Turks and other peoples, and thus was guarding the cultivation and honor of Christian doctrine. . . . On that account, he said, we should all incur greater fault for destroying this city than for destroying Philippopolis and Adrianople." The army left Philadelphia on April 22 with citizens of Philadelphia attacking its rear, and on the following day "the Turks attacked the extreme van of the lord emperor's army". On the 25th "we passed the ruined city of Hierapolis. . . . Through a very pleasant valley, rich with licorice, cardamon, myrtle, figs, and other species of plants, we entered the territory of the Turks." The Selchukids no less than the Byzantines were prepared to 27 Ansbert, p. 72, lines 17-19. 28 Ibid., p. 73, lines 14-20.
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