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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus,   pp. 44-85 PDF (16.9 MB)


Page 68

68 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES  II 
capture. At any rate the ship was destroyed, and its loss was a serious blow
to the morale of the garrison of Acre. 38 
 No sooner had Richard reached Acre than both he and Philip fell sick. They
were not, however, too sick to quarrel. King Philip promptly demanded that,
in accordance with their agreement to share all acquisitions made during
the crusade, Richard should give him half of Cyprus. Since count Philip of
Flanders had just been killed at Acre (June 1), and his great fief had come
into Philip's custody, Richard replied by demanding half of Flanders. These
were simply unamiable pleasantries. Richard's behavior was not far from outrageous.
Count Henry of Champagne had run out of funds, asked Philip for a loan, and
received the answer that he could have the money as a mortgage on Champagne;
Richard gave him the funds he needed. As count Henry was Richard's nephew
as well as Philip's, this may have been pure generosity to a relative. But
when Richard offered to pay four bezants a month to all knights who would
serve him, in contrast to the three paid by Philip, he was clearly bent on
humiliating the French king. Then Richard immediately demonstrated his support
of Guy of Lusignan. When the Pisans and Genoese sought to do him homage as
a leader of the host, he rebuffed the Genoese because they had supported
Conrad. In mid-June king Guy carried before the kings a formal complaint
against Conrad as a contumacious vassal, and Geoffrey of Lusignan challenged
Conrad to battle. Conrad retired to Tyre in anger. It is hard to believe
that Guy took this step without Richard's approval. 39 
 About the time of Richard's arrival, Saladin had brought his army close
to Acre, so that he could give all possible aid to the garrison. He arranged
that, when the crusaders launched a serious attack on the walls, the garrison
would beat their drums to notify the Turkish troops, who would then assault
the besiegers from the rear. King Philip was the first of the crusading kings
to recover his strength, and about July 1 he launched an attack on the city,
while Geoffrey of Lusignan held off Saladin's troops. On July 3 Philip's
miners succeeded in bringing down a section of the city wall, and the king
ordered an attack, but the defenders held firm and the besiegers were repulsed
with the loss of Aubrey Clement, marshal of France. During this attack on
the breach Saladin hurled his cavalry against the crusader's camp. As the
camp was well fortified with a deep trench, and firmly held by the crusading
infantry, the 
 38 Hoveden, III, 112; Diceto, II, 93-94; Devizes, p. 425; Itinerarium, pp.
204-210; Estoire, pp. 108-114; Bahä'-ad-Din, pp. 249-250; Eracles, p.
170. 
 39 Itinerarium, pp. 212, 214-215; Devizes, p. 426; Gesta, II, 170-171; Bahã'-ad-Din,
p. 254; Estoire, pp. 193-196. 


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