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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus,   pp. 44-85 PDF (16.9 MB)


Page 65

Ch. II THE THIRD CRUSADE: RICHARD AND PHILIP 65 
also included three Norman barons and two from the north of England. This
band of crusaders had arrived at Tyre on September 16 and at Acre on October
12, 1190. 33 
 Ralph de Diceto gives us a panorama of the army besieging Acre shortly after
the arrival of archbishop Baldwin. By that time the host was large enough
to blockade the city completely. Each end of the line where it rested on
the sea was held by men from the fleets - the Genoese on the north and the
Pisans on the south. Next to the Genoese came the knights of the Hospital,
and there after Conrad of Montferrat, a number of French bands each commanded
by its own lord, the English under bishop Hubert of Salisbury, the Flemings
under the seneschal of Flanders, king Guy with his brothers Aimery and Geoffrey,
and the barons of the kingdom of Jerusalem who followed his banner. South
of Guy's forces were the knights of the Temple and the band of James of Avesnes.
Between them and the Pisans on the coast were the Danes, Frisians, and Germans
under duke Frederick of Swabia, landgrave Louis of Thuringia, and count Otto
of Guelders.34 This was a formidable force, but it was less an army than
a conglomeration of armed bands. Conrad of Montferrat was important because
of his warlike vigor and his popularity with the Palestinian baronage, Guy
because of his royal title, Henry of Champagne because of his great feudal
power, which made him overlord of many of the French captains, and Frederick
of Swabia because of his royal birth, but no one man stood forth as a dominant
and effective leader. The army had plenty of generals but no commander-in-chief
while in Sicily there waited not one commander-in-chief but two. 
 On October 21 the chaplain of archbishop Baldwin wrote to the chapter of
Canterbury. The army was thoroughly wicked and indulged in all vices. The
princes were jealous of one another and quarreled continually. The lesser
men were desperately impoverished. Many men had been lost in battle and many
more had died; indeed several nobles mentioned in the panorama sketched by
Ralph de Diceto were dead. It is doubtful whether the good monks of Christ
Church, Canterbury, realized the overwhelming significance of one death reported
by the chaplain - that of Sibyl, queen of Jerusalem, elder daughter of king
Amalric and wife of Guy of Lusignan. In fact death had taken not only King
Guy's wife, but also his two daughters by her.35 
 33 Diceto, II, 84; Itinerarium, p. 93; Hoveden, III, 42. 
 34 Diceto, II, 79-80. 
 35 Epistolae Cantuariensis (ed. William Stubbs, in Chronicles and Memorials
of the Reign of Richard I, Rolls Series, XXXVIII) H, 328-329. 


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