Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
II: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus, pp. 44-85 PDF (16.5 MB)
Ch. II THE THIRD CRUSADE: RICHARD AND PHILIP 61 Richard's lands in 1188-1189. Richard insisted that William leave the crusading host, and only long, patient negotiation by Philip and his nobles persuaded him to relent.27 Early in 1191 a new cloud appeared to darken the relations between the two kings. Although Richard was still officially affianced to Alice of France, he had entrusted his mother Eleanor with the task of finding him another bride. She had persuaded King Sancho VI of Navarre to give Richard his daughter Berengaria. Early in January Eleanor and Berengaria reached northern Italy on their way to Messina. Apparently they were escorted by a belated French crusader, Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders. The approach of Berengaria made the problem of Alice acute. Late in February Philip of Flanders left his fair companions at Naples and proceeded by ship to Messina. This old and experienced politician seems to have brought the two kings together to clear up the points in dispute between them. As the French and English versions of the treaty concluded differ decidedly, we shall probably never know just what the agreement was, but it is clear that Philip released Richard from his promise to marry Alice, Richard promised Philip 10,000 marks payable in Normandy, and various territorial settlements were made. On March 30 Philip sailed from Messina on his way to Acre.28 Queen Eleanor was as unhurried a tourist as her son, and it was the end of March before she reached Reggio in Calabria. There Richard met his mother and fiancée and escorted them to Messina. As early as February the king had been disturbed by reports of the quarrels among the rulers of England and had decided to send home Walter of Coutances, archbishop of Rouen. Early in April the archbishop and the aged queen departed for England. Berengaria was placed in the care of Queen Joan of Sicily, who was to accompany her brother to Palestine. On April 10, 1191, Richard's fleet sailed from Messina. According to the contemporary chronicles, Richard's fleet as it sailed from Messina consisted of about 180 ships and 39 galleys ranged in eight divisions. The first line was composed of three very large ships, one of which carried Joan and Berengaria and the other two the royal treasure. Then followed six lines of ships. 27 Estoire, p. 68; Gesta, II, 155-156; Rigord, pp. 106-107; Itinerarium, p. 169. The Itinerarium seems to say that Richard gave Philip half the money, but it is difficult to reject Rigord's clear statement. 28 Gesta, II, 157, 160-161, 236; Itinerarium, pp. 175-176; Thomas Rymer, Foedera (Record Commission, London, 1816), I, part I, 54.
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