Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
XII: The Spanish and Portuguese reconquest, 1095-1492, pp. 396-456 PDF (13.3 MB)
456 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES III settled, he would become a fellow subject under the king; we need only cite the vast contrast in attitudes, for example, between the French Chanson de Roland and the Castilian Can tar del Cid, or between the late crusade ideal and the rejection of it in favor of peaceful conversion by so eminent a mid-fifteenth-century thinker as cardinal John of Segovia, to appreciate the extent to which accep tance of human coexistence (con vivencia) as well as enmity toward external dominion colors the history of the reconquest.33 To be sure, between 1095 and 1492 many fluctuations in national and religious purpose can be discerned: the bitter drives for survival against the Murabit, Muwahhid, and Marinid might in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the loss of momentum after 1350, and the revival of effort in the fifteenth century that carried over into the Turkish and Reformation wars, and the great overseas conquests, colonizations, and missionary enterprises of the early modern age. Yet the impulses and methods, the skills in warfare and in the creation of new societies that Spaniards displayed in the Caribbean, Mexico, and Peru, and Portuguese in the Atlantic islands, Africa, Asia, and the Brazilian captaincies, all are deeply rooted in the reconquest past and the long medieval confrontation with Islam. 33. D. Cabanelas Rodriguez, Juan de Segovia y el problema islámico (Madrid, 1952).
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