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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
(1975)

IX: The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1421-1523,   pp. 314-339 PDF (14.1 MB)


Page 316

316 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES III 
local emirate in Bithynia, but had expanded rapidly at the expense of the
other emirates and the waning Byzantine empire.1 The order, which had held
castles in the Holy Land as fiefs from the kings of Jerusalem until 1291,
and which had been the guest of the king of Cyprus from 1291 to 1306, had
become at Rhodes an independent state, recognized as such by the pope, and
by many states, Christian and Moslem. Subject to constitutional limitations
on his power, its grand master was lord of Rhodes and its dependent islands,
treating with other heads of state, sending ambassadors, coining money, naming
consuls, and, at least in theory, controlling the men and property of the
order throughout Latin Europe. 
 When Anton Fluvian (1421—1 437) succeeded Philibert of Naillac as
grand master, a treaty negotiated in 1403 between the Hospital and the Mamluk
sultan (known as the "soldan of Babylon") Faraj still governed relations
between Rhodes and Egypt. Its terms, which were in French, give a clear picture
of the scope of the order's activities in the eastern Mediterranean in the
early fifteenth century.2 It provided that: (1) the peace of 1370, concluded
after the sack in 1365 of Alexandria, should be observed; (2) the order might
maintain a hospital at Jerusalem and a consul at Ramla, to help all pilgrims
visiting Jerusalem; (3) Hospitallers and their suites might freely tra verse
the sultan's lands, on horse or on foot, without impediment or tribute; (4)
pilgrims visiting the Holy Sepulcher or the monastery of St. Catherine at
Sinai should pay no dues other than those—precisely enumerated—prevailing
before the capture of Alexandria; (5) breth 
ren assigned to the hospital might enlarge the building for the better accommodation
of pilgrims, and make repairs at the Holy Sepulcher and other holy places
to prevent the ruin of those churches; (6) the 
und Krankenfursorge des Ordens vom Hospital des Heiligen Johannes (Rome,
1911), and Uber die Caritas im Johanniter-Malteser-orden seit seiner Grundung
(Essen, 1929). On the Hospitaller navy, see C. Manfroni, Storia della marina
italiana dalla caduta di Costantinopoli alla battaglia di Lepanto (Rome,
1897); A. Guglielmotti, Storia della marina pontificia (10 vols., Rome, 1886—189
3); and E. Rossi, Storia della marina dell' ordine di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme,
di Rodi e di Malta (Rome, 1926). Reviews and periodicals which have published
articles of importance on the Hospitallers at Rhodes include Annuario della
R. Scuola archeologica di Atene (1914 on); Clara Rhodos, organ of the Istituto
FERT di Rodi (1928—1941); and Rivista illustrata del sovrano militare
ordine di Malta (Rome, 1937— 1943), now the Annales [RevueJ de l'Ordre.
 This chapter was translated from the Italian by the late Theodore F. Jones,
and edited by Harry W. Hazard after Professor Rossi's death. 
 1. See above, chapter VIII; cf. Paul Wittek, Das Furstentum Mentesche (Istanbul,
1934) and The Rise of the Ottoman Empfre (London, 1938; Royal Asiatic Society
Monographs, no. 23). A chapter on the Ottomans is planned for volume V of
this work (in preparation). 
 2. Malta, cod. 332, fol. 170, published in Pauli, Codice diplomatico, II,
108—110. 


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