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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries

VIII: The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1306-1421,   pp. 278-313 PDF (20.9 MB)

Page 303

an army which included Thomas Preijubovich, the Serbian despot of lanina.
The Hospitallers were ambushed, probably in August; some were killed and
others, including Fernández de Heredia, were cap tured.52 The Hospital's
first major operation of its own since the conquest of Rhodes ended in military
 Vonitsa was evacuated by the Hospitallers, though it remained in Latin hands,
while Lepanto (Naupactus) and various fortresses in the Morea were garrisoned
with Latin mercenaries; the Hospital also hired 150 members of the Navarrese
companies who came into Greece from Durazzo in Albania under the command
of John de Urtubia, Mahiot of Coquerel, and others. Though the master was
free by the spring of 1379 and reached Rhodes in July, the Hospital gradually
lost control in Greece. It had to borrow heavily; Lepanto passed to Ghin
Boua Spata; and the Hospital was forced to pawn its possessions in the Catalan
duchy of Athens to Nerio Acciajuoli. Certain individual Hospitallers joined
with Nerio and the Navarrese in attacks on the Catalan duchy; the Catalans
even lost Thebes to the Navarrese, probably in the spring of 1379. By 1381
the Navarrese were established in the Morea, where the Hospitaller commanders
Bertrand Flote and Hesso Schlegelholtz, unable to control them, were forced
to buy them off. Early in 1381, faced with the Navar rese, with problems
at Rhodes, with the expenses of the passagium and the master's ransom, and
with the crises both in Latin Greece and in the Hospital itself which had
followed the election in Sep tember 1378 of Clement VII as a rival pope,
the Hospitallers aban doned their expensive commitments in the principality
of Achaea and handed its government back to queen Joanna's officials.53 
52. See above, pp. 216—217. In 1386 Esau de' Buondelmonti married Thomas
Preijubo vich's widow Angelina, and became ruler of Ianina. 
53. The standard versions of this Greek intervention, such as Delaville Le
Roulx, Rhodes, pp. 199—211, and Zeininger, "Grèce continentale,"
pp. 393—396, repeat earlier errors of fact and interpretation. See
R. J. Loenertz, "Hospitaliers et Navarrais en Grèce, 1376—1383:
Regestes et documents," Orientalia Christiana periodica, XXII (1956), 3 19—360,
reprinted in his Byzantina et Franco-Graeca (Rome, 1970), pp. 329—369;
background studies in G. Dennis, The Reign of Manuel II Palaeologus in Thessalonica,
1382—1 387 (Rome, 1960), pp. 26—46; A. Eszer, Des abenteuerliche
Leben des Johannes Laskaris Kalopheros (Wiesbaden, 1969), pp. 54—79;
and above, chapter IV. Further details, amendments, and references are in
A. Luttrell, "The Principality of Achaea in 1377," Byzantinische Zeitschrift,
LVII (1964), 340—343; "Intrigue, Schism, and Violence among the Hospitallers
of Rhodes: 
1377—1384," Speculum, XLI (1966), 30—37; "Aldobrando Baroncelli
in Greece: 1378— 1382," Orientalia Christiana periodica, XXXVI (1970),
273—300; "La Corona de Aragon y la Grecia catalana: 1379—1394,"
Anuario de estudios medievales, VI (1969), 2 19—252; and "Le Compagnie
navarresi in Grecia: 1376—1404" [forthcoming]. Much remains obscure,
but there is no evidence to support the accepted allegations that these Greek
schemes, or those of 1356—1357, sprang from Fernández de Heredia's
ambitions, or that he had any particular interest in or obsession with Greece
before he went there in 1378 (cf. Luttrell, 

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