Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
VIII: The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1306-1421, pp. 278-313 PDF (20.9 MB)
290 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES Genoese shipping, and the Venetians in particular were reluctant to help. Throughout the century the Hospitallers could seldom provide more than three or four galleys for an expedition, plus one or two retained to guard Rhodes.16 Genuine debts and difficulties were ignored, even by an experienced man such as Marino Sanudo Tor sello, whose crusading projects envisaged the exploitation of Latin seapower and the prohibition of all trade with Moslems through the maintenance of a blockade to be enforced by ten galleys, two of them to be provided by the Hospital. In about 1323 Sanudo claimed that, since the defense of Rhodes was costing less, the Hospitallers' Cypriote and Armenian incomes could be used to support 150 armed horsemen to defend Cilicia. In 1329 Sanudo expressed surprise that despite an annual income from the responsiones alone of 180,000 forms, of which some 20,000 came from Cyprus, the Hospitallers were unable to provide even two or three galleys for a small cam paign; he also accused them of harboring pirates at Rhodes. 17 Papal crusading plans of 1323 theoretically involved a Hospitaller contribu tion of a thousand men-at-arms.18 Villeneuve, well aware of the serious problems in the west, re mained in Europe from 1319 until 1332. There were rulers who seized the Hospitallers' lands and incomes, demanded their services, sought to control nominations to priories, and prevented men and money from leaving for Rhodes. The brethren themselves often failed to pay their responsiones, alienated the Hospital's lands, and refused to go to the Convent in the Levant. The master attacked these defi ciencies in chapters-general held in Provence and, with papal coopera tion, continued the struggle to gain effective control of the Templars' lands. Except in Portugal, Castile, and Valencia, a considerable num ber of these properties were secured, after much negotiation and litigation with kings, bishops, and nobles who claimed or had occu pied them; in France, for example, the king demanded 200,000 livres for their transfer. These lands certainly enriched the Hospital, but their assimilation involved administrative problems, and the new priories of Catalonia, Aquitaine, Toulouse, and Champagne were created.19 Some of the lands were sold to meet the huge debts 16. E. Rossi, Storia della marina deli' Ordine di S. Giovanni di Gerusalemme, di Rodi e di Malta (Rome and Milan, 1926), pp. 10—17; A. Luttrell, "The Servitudo Marina at Rhodes: 1306—1462," Zeitschrift fur Neogräzistik [forthcoming]. 17. Sanudo, in Gesta Dei per Francos, ed. J. Bongars, II (Hanover, 1611), 5—7, 31, 3 13—316. 18. Finke, Acta aragonensia, I (Berlin, 1908), 494—496. 19. A. Luttrell, "La Corona de Aragón y las Ordenes militares durante el siglo XIV," VIII Congreso de Historia de la Corona de Aragón, III (Valencia, 1970), 67—77; "The Hospital lers of Rhodes in Portugal: 1291—1415," Congreso Luso-Espanhol de Estudos medievais (Porto [forthcoming]).
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