Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
I: The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century, pp. 2-26 ff. PDF (9.6 MB)
26 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES III perfectio, to ensure victory for his three "estates" of kings, nobility, and bourgeoisie, equivalent to the classes of commanders, cavalry, and infantry in the forthcoming campaigns against "miscreants." Again, Philip preaches peace and goodwill among all Christians of the west, and he advises the duke of Burgundy, the kings of France and England, and all good Catholics to join forces to avenge their humil iation in the east and restore the birthplace of Christ to Rome. But Philip of Mézières was, to use his own words, an old dreamer—a voice from the past in a world of change. The crusade of Nicopolis was the last serious attempt by western Europe at united offensive action of the traditional kind in the history of the holy war against Islam.
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