Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451, pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)
Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 237 outstanding debts of the emperor. 27 It appears that John V even hoped to recover the territory occupied by the Ottomans in Thrace, since the aggressive Suleiman was now dead. Thus in his answer to the pope's letter dated July 21, 1357, the emperor was able to communicate to Innocent VI some signs of success over his enemies and high hopes for the future.28 For the ghazis the agreement, signed under duress, was a great sacrifice. It meant the cessation of warfare and the abandonment of the Turks who had recently settled in Thrace. After his rescue of Khalil from the corsairs in the early summer of 1358,29 John V conceived a plan that would maintain peace with the Ottomans. Following the example of Cantacuzenus, he secured Orkhan's agreement to the engagement of his daughter Irene, then almost ten years old, to the Ottoman prince in Constantinople. He then returned Khalil to his father at Nicomedia. Furthermore, he had the promise of the old Orkhan that Khalil was to succeed him on the throne at his death. After Suleiman's death prince Murad, with his tutor Lala Shahin, took his place in Gallipoli as frontier lord. Khalil, in his appanage in Nicaea, died soon afterward, in 1359. The Ottoman tradition3° is important for the historian of the crusades since it seems to corroborate a disputed account given by Philip of Mézières, the biographer of Peter Thomas, on the crusaders' campaign against the Ottomans in 1359. Back in Constantinople in the autumn of 1359 as the pope's apostolic legate in the east, Peter Thomas had brought with him a small crusading force composed of Hospitallers, Venetians, Genoese, and English soldiers on Venetian galleys. He found John V engaged in hostilities with the Ottomans, Khalil having by that time returned home, and perhaps died. According to Philip the crusaders, joined by Greek forces, captured and burned Lampsacus, an Ottoman transit port on the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles. During their return to their ships they were attacked by Turks waiting in ambush. Fleeing in disorder with the legate at their head, the Christians barely escaped a massacre. Turkish tradition mentions an engagement on the plain adjoining 27. Ostrogorsky, "Byzance, état tributaire de l'empire turc," Zbornik radova Vizantoloskog Instituta, V (1958), 49—58. 28. Setton, The Papacy, I, 228. 29. See Parisot, Cantacuzène, pp. 298—309; lorga, "Latins," p. 219, but the date given there, 1356, is erroneous. 30. Anonymous, Tevarrkh-i Al-i ' Othman, ed. Giese as Die altosmanischen anonymen Chroniken..., I (Breslau, 1922), 18; a ghazi tradition in Oruj, Tevärikh-i Al-i ' Othmãn, ed. Franz Babinger (Hanover, 1925), p. 19, makes Umur Pasha encourage Suleiman not to abandon his conquests in Europe.
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