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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)


Page 223

Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 223 
the boundaries between Islam and Christendom. The Christian's predominance
on the sea was acknowledged by the Mamluks.' In fact, in the period after
1291 a blockade — ordered by pope Nicholas IV (1288—1292) —
of Egypt, Syria, and Turkey seriously threatened to cut the supply lines
of commodities vital to the Mamluks — arms, timber, 
XV—XVI: Fontes turcici ... (Sofia, since 1964), and Belgeler (Turkish
Historical Society, Ankara; since 1964). See also Ar~civ Kilavuzu (2 vols.,
Istanbul, 1938—1940), incomplete guide to the collections of documents
in the Topkapi Sarayl archives (TKS); M. Tayyib Gokbilgin, XVXVI. asirlardaEdirne
ye Pa~saLivdsi (Istanbul, 1952), a collection of archival documents important
for pious foundations in Rumelia, Ottoman biography, and finances; SOret-i
defter-i sancak-i Arvanid, ed. Halil Inalcik (Turkish Historical Society;
Ankara, 1954), Ottoman survey book of Albania, dated 1432; and Ahmed FerIdfln
(Beg), ed., Mün~ce'ât es-selâtIn (2 vols., Istanbul, 1858),
critically analyzed by Irene Beldiceanu-Steinherr, Recherches sur les actes
des règnes des sultans Osman, Orkhan et Murad I (Munich, 1967). 
 Western collections of documents are Ernest Charrière, ed., Négociations
de Ia France dans le Levant (4 vols., Paris, 1848); Georg E. Muller, ed.,
Documenti sulle relazioni delle città toscane coll' Oriente cristiano
e coi turchifino all' anno MDXXXI (Documenti degli archivi toscani, no. 3;
Florence, 1879); Vladimir Lamansky, ed., Secrets d'etat de Venise (St. Petersburg,
1884; repr. New York, 1968); lorga, Notes et extraits pour servir a 1' histoire
des croisades au XVe siècle (6 vols., Paris and Bucharest, 1899—1916);
and Freddy Thiriet, ed., Régestes des délibérations
du sénat de Venise concernant Ia Romanie (3 vols., Paris and The Hague,
1958— 1961). 
 Western memoirs of interest include G. Georgiades Arnakis, "Gregory Palamas
among the 
Turks and Documents of his Captivity as Historical Sources," Speculum, XXXVI
(1951), 104- 
118; Reisen des Johannes Schiltberger..., ed. Karl E Neumann (Munich, 1859),
tr. J. Buchan 
Telfer as The Bondage and Travels of Johannes Schiltberger... in Europe,
Asia, and Africa, 
1396-142Z with notes by Philipp Bruun (Hakluyt Series; London, 1879): he
was captured in 
1396 and served the sultan for six years; Bertrandon de Ia Brocquière,
Voyage d'Outremer, ed. 
Charles Schefer (Paris, 1892); and "Donado da Lezze" (Giovanni-Maria Angiolello),
Historia 
turchesca (1300—1514), ed. Ion Ursu (Bucharest, 1910). 
 For Ottoman chroniclers see Babinger, Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen
und ihre Werke (Leipzig, 1927). The earliest surviving account of Ottoman
history in Turkish is in Ahmedi's dedication of the Iskendernâme to
the contender Suleiman (1402-1411); the text was last published by Nihal
Atsiz in Osmanli tarihleri (Istanbul, 1949), pp. 1—35 (rhymed summary,
with historical data too brief and too vague). Early Ottoman traditions,
apparently composed in chronicle form under Orkhan (1326—1362), are
lost, but their contents are partially known from compilations made under
Bayazid 11(1481—1512). ' Ashik Pasha-zâde summarized them in
faithful detail in his TevdrIkh-iAl-i ' Othmân, ed. Atsiz as ~4yikpa~cazâde
tarihi (Istanbul, 1949), pp. 79—318; tr. Richard F. Kreutel, Vom Hirtenzelt
zur. hohen Pforte (Vienna and Cologne, 1959); legendary folk tales are mixed
in with genuine historical accounts, necessitating critical use of this important
source. 
 The second and third compilations — RflhI (or Pseudo-RUhI) and the
anonymous chronicler 
— used some of the same sources as the first. For discussion see Inalcik,
"The Rise of Ottoman Historiography," in Historians of the Middle East, ed.
Bernard Lewis and Peter M. Holt (London, 1962), pp. 152-167; Victor L. Ménage,
"The Beginnings of Ottoman Historiography," ibid. pp. 168-179; and idem,
NeshrI's History of the Ottomans: the Sources and Development of the 
 1. David Ayalon, "Ba~riyya," Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed., I (Leyden,
1960), 945—946; idem, "The Wafidiya in the Mamluk Kingdom," Islamic
Culture, XXX (1951), 89-104; Inalcik, "The Rise of the Turcoman Maritime
Principalities in Anatolia, Byzantium, and Crusades," Byzantinische Forschungen,
IX (1985), 179—217. 


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