Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451, pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)
Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 223 the boundaries between Islam and Christendom. The Christian's predominance on the sea was acknowledged by the Mamluks.' In fact, in the period after 1291 a blockade — ordered by pope Nicholas IV (1288—1292) — of Egypt, Syria, and Turkey seriously threatened to cut the supply lines of commodities vital to the Mamluks — arms, timber, XV—XVI: Fontes turcici ... (Sofia, since 1964), and Belgeler (Turkish Historical Society, Ankara; since 1964). See also Ar~civ Kilavuzu (2 vols., Istanbul, 1938—1940), incomplete guide to the collections of documents in the Topkapi Sarayl archives (TKS); M. Tayyib Gokbilgin, XVXVI. asirlardaEdirne ye Pa~saLivdsi (Istanbul, 1952), a collection of archival documents important for pious foundations in Rumelia, Ottoman biography, and finances; SOret-i defter-i sancak-i Arvanid, ed. Halil Inalcik (Turkish Historical Society; Ankara, 1954), Ottoman survey book of Albania, dated 1432; and Ahmed FerIdfln (Beg), ed., Mün~ce'ât es-selâtIn (2 vols., Istanbul, 1858), critically analyzed by Irene Beldiceanu-Steinherr, Recherches sur les actes des règnes des sultans Osman, Orkhan et Murad I (Munich, 1967). Western collections of documents are Ernest Charrière, ed., Négociations de Ia France dans le Levant (4 vols., Paris, 1848); Georg E. Muller, ed., Documenti sulle relazioni delle città toscane coll' Oriente cristiano e coi turchifino all' anno MDXXXI (Documenti degli archivi toscani, no. 3; Florence, 1879); Vladimir Lamansky, ed., Secrets d'etat de Venise (St. Petersburg, 1884; repr. New York, 1968); lorga, Notes et extraits pour servir a 1' histoire des croisades au XVe siècle (6 vols., Paris and Bucharest, 1899—1916); and Freddy Thiriet, ed., Régestes des délibérations du sénat de Venise concernant Ia Romanie (3 vols., Paris and The Hague, 1958— 1961). Western memoirs of interest include G. Georgiades Arnakis, "Gregory Palamas among the Turks and Documents of his Captivity as Historical Sources," Speculum, XXXVI (1951), 104- 118; Reisen des Johannes Schiltberger..., ed. Karl E Neumann (Munich, 1859), tr. J. Buchan Telfer as The Bondage and Travels of Johannes Schiltberger... in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1396-142Z with notes by Philipp Bruun (Hakluyt Series; London, 1879): he was captured in 1396 and served the sultan for six years; Bertrandon de Ia Brocquière, Voyage d'Outremer, ed. Charles Schefer (Paris, 1892); and "Donado da Lezze" (Giovanni-Maria Angiolello), Historia turchesca (1300—1514), ed. Ion Ursu (Bucharest, 1910). For Ottoman chroniclers see Babinger, Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen und ihre Werke (Leipzig, 1927). The earliest surviving account of Ottoman history in Turkish is in Ahmedi's dedication of the Iskendernâme to the contender Suleiman (1402-1411); the text was last published by Nihal Atsiz in Osmanli tarihleri (Istanbul, 1949), pp. 1—35 (rhymed summary, with historical data too brief and too vague). Early Ottoman traditions, apparently composed in chronicle form under Orkhan (1326—1362), are lost, but their contents are partially known from compilations made under Bayazid 11(1481—1512). ' Ashik Pasha-zâde summarized them in faithful detail in his TevdrIkh-iAl-i ' Othmân, ed. Atsiz as ~4yikpa~cazâde tarihi (Istanbul, 1949), pp. 79—318; tr. Richard F. Kreutel, Vom Hirtenzelt zur. hohen Pforte (Vienna and Cologne, 1959); legendary folk tales are mixed in with genuine historical accounts, necessitating critical use of this important source. The second and third compilations — RflhI (or Pseudo-RUhI) and the anonymous chronicler — used some of the same sources as the first. For discussion see Inalcik, "The Rise of Ottoman Historiography," in Historians of the Middle East, ed. Bernard Lewis and Peter M. Holt (London, 1962), pp. 152-167; Victor L. Ménage, "The Beginnings of Ottoman Historiography," ibid. pp. 168-179; and idem, NeshrI's History of the Ottomans: the Sources and Development of the 1. David Ayalon, "Ba~riyya," Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed., I (Leyden, 1960), 945—946; idem, "The Wafidiya in the Mamluk Kingdom," Islamic Culture, XXX (1951), 89-104; Inalcik, "The Rise of the Turcoman Maritime Principalities in Anatolia, Byzantium, and Crusades," Byzantinische Forschungen, IX (1985), 179—217.
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