Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
IV: Financing the Crusades, pp. 116-149 PDF (13.4 MB)
Ch. IV FINANCING THE CRUSADES 145 ied greatly, an indication that many still expected to finance their journeys in part; but the. king contributed from 133 ' /3 to 400 ii. per knight for a year's service, the total being above 100,000 ii. for about 500 knights. Most of these barons and knights were also promised their passage, replacement of horses, and meals in the king's palace, the cost of which can hardly have been less than a half of their stipends. The king's brother, Alphonse of Poitiers, about the same time offered to knights who would furnish their own equipment, from 160 to 180 li. a year, representing a maximum stipend of 10 sous a day, while he offered 5 sous a day to mounted bowmen.93 All these wages were apparently supplemented by transportation and maintenance, and Alphonse specifically promised remounts to his bowmen in addition. Light cavalry thus cost half of the stipend of the chevalier and infantry a tenth or more. If Louis employed no more than 200 to 300 light cavalry and 1,600 infantry, as he did in Syria in 1250—1252, these men would have cost him well over 50,000 li. in annual stipends, plus transportation and maintenance. Transportation cost Louis over 100,000 ~ and maintenance for a year would hardly have cost less. Altogether, Louis might have expected to pay 300,000 li. a year for his second expedition. On the earlier crusade, until Mansurah at least, Louis's army was larger than on the second and his campaign ran for six years. If the later account of his total costs is correct, his costs then would have averaged over 250,000 li. a year, about equal to his average annual royal revenue of 240,000 to 250,000 ii. Since Louis's ordinary expenditures amounted to about half the royal revenue,95 even with the lion's share of apostolic graces, he might have had to raise 100,000 to 125,000 ii. a year from savings, current income, aides, and tailles.96 But that was a royal expense: Henry III of England had only an average ordinary income of about 100,000 li. a year before expenditures.97 In the next rank among crusaders were the princes, of whom Alphonse of Poitiers may stand as an example. An extant account of his household provides exact figures from February 2 to December 10, 93. Boutaric, Saint Louis et Alfonse de Poitiers, pp. 115—116. 94. Auguste Jal, ed., Pacta naulorum, in Documents historiques inédits, ed. Jacques J. Champollion-Figeac (Collection de documents inédits; 4 vols., Paris, 1841—1848), I, 507—615. This sum is calculated on the assumption that Louis contracted with Marseilles for twenty ships, as he did in 1254, at the price offered. 95. Strayer, "The Crusades of Louis IX," p. 491 and note 6. 96. The financing of Louis TX's first crusade has been described in detail by Jordan, Louis IX, ch. 4. 97. James H. Ramsey, The Dawn of the Constitution (London, 1908), p. 297, where £30,000 is given as the ordinary revenue, but from this must be subtracted the £10,000 assigned to prince Edward from 1255.
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