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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe

IV: Financing the Crusades,   pp. 116-149 PDF (13.4 MB)

Page 145

ied greatly, an indication that many still expected to finance their journeys
in part; but the. king contributed from 133 ' /3 to 400 ii. per knight for
a year's service, the total being above 100,000 ii. for about 500 knights.
Most of these barons and knights were also promised their passage, replacement
of horses, and meals in the king's palace, the cost of which can hardly have
been less than a half of their stipends. The king's brother, Alphonse of
Poitiers, about the same time offered to knights who would furnish their
own equipment, from 160 to 180 li. a year, representing a maximum stipend
of 10 sous a day, while he offered 5 sous a day to mounted bowmen.93 All
these wages were apparently supplemented by transportation and maintenance,
and Alphonse specifically promised remounts to his bowmen in addition. Light
cavalry thus cost half of the stipend of the chevalier and infantry a tenth
or more. If Louis employed no more than 200 to 300 light cavalry and 1,600
infantry, as he did in Syria in 1250—1252, these men would have cost
him well over 50,000 li. in annual stipends, plus transportation and maintenance.
Transportation cost Louis over 100,000 ~ and maintenance for a year would
hardly have cost less. Altogether, Louis might have expected to pay 300,000
li. a year for his second expedition. On the earlier crusade, until Mansurah
at least, Louis's army was larger than on the second and his campaign ran
for six years. If the later account of his total costs is correct, his costs
then would have averaged over 250,000 li. a year, about equal to his average
annual royal revenue of 240,000 to 250,000 ii. Since Louis's ordinary expenditures
amounted to about half the royal revenue,95 even with the lion's share of
apostolic graces, he might have had to raise 100,000 to 125,000 ii. a year
from savings, current income, aides, and tailles.96 But that was a royal
expense: Henry III of England had only an average ordinary income of about
100,000 li. a year before expenditures.97 
 In the next rank among crusaders were the princes, of whom Alphonse of Poitiers
may stand as an example. An extant account of his household provides exact
figures from February 2 to December 10, 
 93. Boutaric, Saint Louis et Alfonse de Poitiers, pp. 115—116. 
 94. Auguste Jal, ed., Pacta naulorum, in Documents historiques inédits,
ed. Jacques J. Champollion-Figeac (Collection de documents inédits;
4 vols., Paris, 1841—1848), I, 507—615. This sum is calculated
on the assumption that Louis contracted with Marseilles for twenty ships,
as he did in 1254, at the price offered. 
 95. Strayer, "The Crusades of Louis IX," p. 491 and note 6. 
 96. The financing of Louis TX's first crusade has been described in detail
by Jordan, Louis IX, ch. 4. 
 97. James H. Ramsey, The Dawn of the Constitution (London, 1908), p. 297,
where £30,000 is given as the ordinary revenue, but from this must
be subtracted the £10,000 assigned to prince Edward from 1255. 

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